What has been published about information sharing and inter-sectoral collaboration?

Table of Contents

1 Methods for coordinating data-gathering with standardized nomenclature.

1.0.0.1 Highlights

1.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Voice from China: nomenclature of the novel coronavirus and related diseases
Chin Med J (Engl)
IV. Other Currently, there are no standardized nomenclature guidelines for coronaviruses.

For example, the current new name suggested This nomenclature is controversial.

Discussions are needed for the nomenclature of the novel coronavirus until wide consensus reached by science community.
2020 Gorbalenya et al The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2
Nature Microbiology
IV. Other The CSG uses a computational framework of comparative genomics 23 , which is shared by several ICTV Study Groups responsible for the classification and nomenclature of the order Nidovirales and coordinated by the ICTV Nidovirales Study Group (NSG) 24 (Box 3).
2020 FANG et al Consensus on standardized diagnosis and treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients during epidemic of corona virus disease 2019
Chinese Journal of Trauma
IV. Other Moreover, the consensus describes the grading and classification of OVCF patients diagnosed with COVID-19 according to the severity of illness and recommends different treatment plans and corresponding protective measures based on the different types and epidemic prevention and control requirements.
2020-01-31 Koenig et al 2019-nCoV: The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool Applied to a Novel Emerging Coronavirus
West J Emerg Med
IV. Prevalence Study

One preliminary, small-scale study of 41 patients in Wuhan China, reported 6 deaths (15% mortality) with a median age of 49.0 years.
Case definitions promulgated by the WHO 24 and CDC 33 provide useful comprehensive definitions that have been incorporated into the 3I Tool.
2020-02-02 Zhang et al Transmission and epidemiological characteristics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected Pneumonia (COVID-19): preliminary evidence obtained in comparison with 2003-SARS
medrxiv
IV. Other Methods: The information of COVID-19 and 2003-SARS from websites of NHCPRC and the World Health Organization was collected, and then the transmission dynamics of the two kinds of infectious diseases were analyzed.
2020-02-03 Shaman et al Direct Measurement of Rates of Asymptomatic Infection and Clinical Care-Seeking for Seasonal Coronavirus
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We enrolled 214 healthy individuals from multiple locations in the Manhattan borough of NYC.
These symptom definitions are described in reference .
2020-02-06 Bonilla-Aldana et al Coronavirus infections reported by ProMED, February 2000–January 2020
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Conclusions Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections.
2020-02-09 Guan et al Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

The core data sets (including clinical outcomes and symptoms) of 3 patients were lacking due to the incompleteness of original reports, hence this report delineates 1,099 patients with 2019-nCoV ARD from 552 hospitals in 31 provinces/province-level municipalities (Fig.
A team of experienced respiratory clinicians reviewed and abstracted the data.
2020-02-11 Gorbalenya et al Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses – a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group
biorxiv
IV. Other This necessary adjustment may be facilitated by the major revision of the virus species nomenclature that is currently being discussed by ICTV and planned to be implemented in the near future 33 .
2020-02-12 Ung et al Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study On January 5, 2020, the local government swiftly took the lead in coordinating and communicating actions across various sectors.

This echoed the recommendations made in the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nConV): Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan published by the World Health Organization on February 3, 2020.
2020-02-20 Deng et al Characteristics of and Public Health Responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in China
J Clin Med
IV. Prevalence Study In accordance with the working principle of "prevention first, prevention and control combined, scientific guidance and timely treatment", the prevention and control work shall be carried out in a coordinated and standardized way .

Thereafter, this disease was named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO), and the causative virus was designated as SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses .
2020-02-21 Huang et al Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China
The Lancet
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

14 Of 59 suspected cases, 41 patients were confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV.
Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records.
2020-02-27 Zhang et al Clinical characteristics of 82 death cases with COVID-19
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Methods Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital′s electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms.
Methods Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital′s electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms.
2020-02-28 Bao et al 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 6 The provincial governments are responsible for organising, coordinating, and handling all emergency public health treatments, disclosing information, and gathering emergency materials and facilities under the guidance of the State Council.
2020-02-28 Jernigan et al Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak - United States, February 24, 2020
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
IV. Other U.S. public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely, and CDC is coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other global partners.
2020-02-29 Cai et al The Effects of "Fangcang, Huoshenshan, and Leishenshan" Makeshift Hospitals and Temperature on the Mortality of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other Methods Thirty-two days of data that were shared by China National Health Commission and China Weather Net were collected using standard forms.
2020-03-06 Wu et al SARS-CoV-2 is an appropriate name for the new coronavirus
The Lancet
IV. Other To facilitate good practice and scientific exchange, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has established standardised formats for classifying viruses.
2020-03-06 Wu et al Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Computer Model The National Health Commission of China has developed a case-definition system to facilitate the classification of patients (panel).
2020-03-06 Qiu et al A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations
Gen Psychiatr
IV. Prevalence Study The questionnaire incorporated relevant diagnostic guidelines for specific phobias and stress disorders specified in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision and expert opinions from psychiatrists.
2020-03-12 Calvo et al Recomendaciones sobre el manejo clínico de la infección por el «nuevo coronavirus» SARS-CoV2. Grupo de trabajo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (AEP)
Anales de Pediatría
IV. Other The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19.
2020-03-13 Verity et al Estimates of the severity of COVID-19 disease
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We used data from 169 recovered individuals with reported recovery dates and reported/imputed onset dates to estimate the onset to recovery distribution.
NI coordinated management of the team including the data collation and processing.
2020-03-13 Rodriguez-Morales et al Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
I. Systematic Review

Our review included 19 studies that were published between January 1, 2020, and February 21, 2020, most of them from China and one from Australia (Table 1) , including a total of 2874 patients, ranging from a case series of 9 to a cross-sectional study of 1590 .
This protocol follows the recommendations established by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement , and it has been reported in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (ID 170643).
2020-03-18 Choe et al Coronavirus disease-19: The First 7,755 Cases in the Republic of Korea
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We report the first 7,755 patients with confirmed COVID19 in Korea as of March 13, 2020.
To obtain demographic, epidemiological, and early clinical information, COVID-19 reporting and surveillance data were retrieved from Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC)-operated National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) .
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Multisectoral coordination and action is needed to manage public health events including infectious disease outbreaks.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model For each forecast, the SEIR model was initialized with the daily confirmed active cases of COVID-19 in the US (Refer to Table S2 in Supplementary materials ), which were acquired from a web-based dashboard for real-time epidemic tracking published by Johns Hopkins University .
2020-03-20 GAUTRET et al Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: preliminary results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial
medrxiv
IV. Other All clinical data were collected using standardized questionnaires.
2020-03-20 Gautret et al Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
IV. Other All clinical data were collected using standardized questionnaires.
2020-03-20 Ramanathan et al Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study A regional plan for monitoring available beds and supplies could assist in coordinating the distribution of transported patients to avoid overloading a referral site.
2020-03-20 Escher et al An Ounce of Prevention: Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Mass Gatherings
PMC
IV. Prevalence Study Risk assessment, response, and surveillance are cornerstones of preparation; the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 31000 is a well-accepted approach to risk management .
2020-03-23 Rios et al Effectiveness and safety of antiviral or antibody treatments for coronavirus
medrxiv
III-2. Matched Case Control

The four cases reports/series 29,45,46,48 that included immunosuppressed patients with MERS (5 patients) and unspecified coronavirus (2 patients) reported 3 deaths all in patients with hematological malignancies treated with foscarnet (n=1) and oseltamivir (n=2).
A standardized data abstraction form was developed to capture data on the above listed items.
2020-03-23 Yan et al Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Hainan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other A team of experienced respiratory clinicians reviewed and abstracted the data.
2020-03-23 Pu et al Screening and managing of suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients: experiences from a tertiary hospital outside Hubei province
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The male patient has been discharged after repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 testing, whilst the two female patients have not yet met discharge criteria and remained hospitalized at the end of the study follow-up period (28 February 2020).
Doctors who have been trained were designated to organize the screening, consultation, referral and reporting of suspected cases.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid overview of reviews
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

During full text review, articles were included if they contained the number of influenza cases occurring on a specific date or within a 3-day period, such as through an epidemic curve or a line list of symptom onset dates 37 studies N = NR Long term care facilitiesdefined as any residential environment that housed older adults or elderly individuals with the assistance of medical staff and included facilities referred to as 'assisted living' or 'nursing homes' but excluded community centers and daytime-only facilities serving older adults living in the outside community.
A standardized data abstraction form was developed.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
A standardized data abstraction form was developed.
2020-03-26 Zhang et al Comorbid Diabetes Mellitus was Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

A total of 258 consecutive laboratory-confirmed patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included and analyzed in the study, and 24% of them had diabetes.
All data were reviewed and collected onto the standardized forms from the electronic medical records in the hospital, including case report forms, nursing records, laboratory and radiological findings were reviewed.
2020-03-28 Yuan et al Monitoring Transmissibility and Mortality of COVID-19 in Europe
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Working with the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has provided several recommendations to national and regional authorities in Italy to contain the further spread of COVID-19.
2020-03-29 Ang et al Herbal medicine and pattern identification for treating COVID-19: a rapid review of guidelines
Integrative Medicine Research
IV. Prevalence Study The terminology of pattern identification were standardized based on the clinical manifestation provided in the guidelines and Clinic Terminology of Traditional Chinese Medical Diagnosis and Treatment-Syndromes.
2020-03-29 Thompson et al COVID-19 in Endoscopy: Time to do more?
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
IV. Prevalence Study Our hospital created screening forms integrated into the EHR to facilitate standardized screening before procedures.
2020-03-30 Verity et al Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

We identified information on the characteristics of 48 patients who died from COVID-19 in Hubei, reported by the National Health Commission and the Hubei Province Health Commission website up to Feb 8, 2020.
NI coordinated management of the team, including the data collation and processing.
2020-03-31 Singer et al A new pandemic out of China: the Wuhan 2019-nCoV coronavirus syndrome
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Prevalence Study

Complications in the initial 41 patients reported from Wuhan up to 2nd January 2020 included acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury and secondary infection .
The ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe are coordinating the rapid reporting of data .
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other All these steps should be generating standardized documentation which contains important information that should be protected and centralized to support not only investigative aspects of case management, but it is also required for planning, operations, logistics, administration and finance, and reporting.
2020-03-31 Tey et al Navigating the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak: perspectives from the radiation oncology service in singapore
Radiotherapy and Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study A multi-ministry taskforce was also formed on 27 th January 2020 with the aim of coordinating national and international responses to the outbreak.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
This rapid guideline was developed by gastroenterologists and guideline methodologists from the AGA CGC and CPUC, who were assembled on March 15, 2020 in collaboration with the AGA Governing Board to define time-urgent clinical questions, perform systematic reviews, develop summary evidence profiles, and formulate rapid recommendations.
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model A well-coordinated, systematic and expeditious investigation by government strategists, policy makers, physicians and technical staff is required to understand the outbreaks and identify key points for implementing interventions.
2020-04-15 Musazzi et al New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
IV. Prevalence Study Single National points of contact (SPOC) have been created to facilitate sharing of the information about nationwide medicine shortages and the coordination of emergency plans among the competent National Authorities and the EMA.
2020-12-31 Bai et al Chinese experts’ consensus on the Internet of Things-aided diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Clinical eHealth
IV. Prevalence Study Plan management, remote maintenance, command management, and statistical decision-making functions can expand the massive information mining of COVID-19 and complete management and timely treatment of COVID-19 by applying preset guidelines or standardized criteria.

2 Sharing response information among planners, providers, and others.

2.0.0.1 Highlights

2.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study An example of how beneficial collaboration and sharing of data can be occurred during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa where scientists, health workers and clinicians, amongst other stakeholders from around the world, openly worked together and were able to contain the spread of this pandemic .
2020 Ralph et al 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: Human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
IV. Prevalence Study

On 8 January 2020, it was reported that a novel coronavirus had been sequenced from one patient and subsequently identified in some of the other patients with pneumonia , later reported as 15 of the 59 patients .
Cooperation among public health officials, healthcare workers, and scientists will be key to gaining a foothold and containing virus spread.
2020 WANG et al Expert recommendations for diabetes with or without COVID-19 management in communities
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
IV. Other Here, expert recommendations were developed by Chinese diabetologists, healthcare providers, and public health administrators to improve the ability of primary health facilities and provide standardized basic public health and medical services throughout country.
2020-02-05 McCloskey et al SARS to novel coronavirus – old lessons and new lessons
Epidemiology and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study The WHO has expressed its satisfaction with the actions of the Chinese authorities in sharing information with the WHO.

While reporting of this outbreak shows signs of the efforts of epidemiologists, infectious disease experts, national and international public health agencies and others engaging with journalists, there are also signs that this is not yet achieving it's goal.
2020-02-14 Bajema et al Persons Evaluated for 2019 Novel Coronavirus — United States, January 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
IV. Other As of January 31, 2020, CDC had responded to clinical inquiries from public health officials and health care providers to assist in evaluating approximately 650 persons thought to be at risk for 2019-nCoV infection.

Providers should consult with their local and state health departments when assessing not only ill travelers from 2019-nCoV-affected countries but also ill persons who have been in close contact with patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection in the United States.
2020-02-17 Li et al Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model In addition, awareness among healthcare providers, public health officials and the availability of viral identification assays suggest that capacity for identifying previously missed infections has increased.
2020-02-21 Chen et al Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
The Lancet
IV. Other If data were missing from the records or clarification was needed, we obtained data by direct communication with attending doctors and other health care providers.
2020-02-21 Wong et al The role of institutional trust in preventive and treatment-seeking behaviors during the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak among residents in Hubei, China
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Most 204 participants (85.7%, n = 3,640) reported that they would seek treatment at the hospital, 205 whereas 42% (n = 1,782) reported that they would seek traditional healing, and 62.4% 550) of participants who were in the quarantine area reported no intention of seeking 215 treatment in the hospital.
Healthcare providers can be strong advocates for outbreak prevention efforts 231 in these communities, considering that many expressed a high level of trust in them.
2020-02-22 Zhang et al The continuous evolution and dissemination of 2019 novel human coronavirus
Journal of Infection
IV. Other We call upon wildlife biologists, ecologists, doctors, and veterinarians should promote exchange and share data across disciplines as a mean to minimize the potential for pandemics of the 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-25 Zhu et al The Risk and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Infections Among Inpatients in Psychiatric Hospitals
Neurosci Bull
IV. Other More psychological services should be provided by community workers and family doctors to help the hospital to communicate about the restriction of visitors, so as to obtain consent on the necessity of these temporary arrangements; 8.
2020-02-26 Rothan et al The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Other A guideline was published for the medical staff, healthcare providers, and, public health individuals and researchers who are interested in the 2019-nCoV .
2020-02-27 McFadden et al Perceptions of the Adult US Population regarding the Novel Coronavirus Outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other Risk perception was low (median score of 5 out of 10) with the respondents trusting health professionals and health officials for information on COVID-19.
2020-02-29 Rodríguez-Morales et al Going global – Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Good risk communication from official organizations helps travel health providers communicate and navigate risk with their clients.
2020-03-03 Yang et al Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus 2019 infection and preventive measures in Shenzhen China: a heavy population city
medrxiv
IV. Other For staff in public places, protection measures were both important for the public people and themselves.
2020-03-07 Baker et al Preparing for a Surge of Coronavirus Cases
The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
IV. Other As information and recommendations about COVID-19 continue to evolve, we want to emphasize our support of the CDC and other public health partners as the appropriate source of information and guidance for health care organizations and providers.
2020-03-10 Gao et al The epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Jingmen,Hubei,China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Findings: Of the 213 cases (108 men and 105 women) , 88 (41%) had exposure to Wuhan.
If more information was needed, we communicated with attending health care providers, patients, and their families.
2020-03-12 Ashrafi-rizi et al Information Typology in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Crisis; a Commentary
Arch Acad Emerg Med
IV. Other In this behavioral pattern, attention must be paid to producers and disseminators of information, including the media, government officials, professionals in various fields (physician, nurses, psychologists, etc.)
2020-03-13 Zheng et al Infrared assessment of human facial temperature in the presence and absence of common cosmetics
medrxiv
IV. Other Samples of cosmetics were selected from among those in common personal care use by researchers in our immediate environment.
2020-03-13 Canady et al Mental health groups providing support, education in wake of COVID-19
Mental Health Weekly
IV. Other As news and updates continue to spread regarding the new coronavirus (COVID-19), the deadly virus that causes respiratory illness and pneumonia, mental health groups and organizations have issued information to consumers, providers and the mental health community at large about ways of addressing the virus and seeking information from public health sources.
2020-03-14 Ahmed et al The cancellation of mass gatherings (MGs)? Decision making in the time of COVID-19
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Hajj planners, public health experts and mass gathering medicine experts must collaborate intensely in advance of these events for the best possible outcomes.
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Health, distress, and life satisfaction of people one-month into COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

At the time of the survey, 99 (26.8%) were going to work at their office; 93 (25.2%) had stopped working; and 139 (37.7%) resorted to working from home; 32 (8.7%) participants had not been working before the outbreak started; and 6 (1.6%) reported losing their work during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Such identification can help to prioritize those who might need more help, and psychologists, mental health professionals and social workers can provide services to start addressing at least the mental health issues, even during the lockdown.
2020-03-17 Ying et al Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Of the 882 participants who were recruited in this study, 845 completed the questionnaires correctly (response rate of 95.80% ).
Compared with participants who were HCWs, those who were enterprise workers were more likely to develop mental health problems, while who were government employees or institutions employees were less likely to report psychological response.

Government employees or institutions employees were less likely to have depressive symptoms, which was less documented in the literature.

In addition, compared with participants who were HCWs, participants who were enterprise workers and were more likely to develop depressive symptoms(OR=1.750, 95%CI:1.104-2.776), while who were government employees or institutions employees were less likely to suffer depressive symptoms (OR=0.529, 95%CI:0.286-0.977).
2020-03-17 Buckee et al Improving epidemic surveillance and response: big data is dead, long live big data
The Lancet Digital Health
IV. Computer Model Ministries of health have complex relationships with both the companies that have access to personal data and with the public.

8 Data sharing platforms and standardised aggregation approaches that protect the privacy of personal data are being developed, 9 and increasing internet connectivity allows for rapid data transfer and communication between geographically disparate teams of responders.
2020-03-20 Legido-Quigley et al Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 6 Singapore health authorities provide daily information on mainstream media, the Ministry of Health has Telegram and WhatsApp groups set up with doctors in the public and private sectors where more detailed clinical and logistics information is shared, and authorities use websites to debunk circulating misinformation.
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Health care organizations can provide information on managing stress, reducing burnout, and identifying mental health professionals available to support clinicians .

Leaders and front-line clinicians need to proactively protect the well-being of themselves and their colleagues to avoid adverse outcomes for clinicians and adverse effects on quality of patient care .
2020-03-20 Zhao et al Chinese Public Attention to COVID-19 Epidemic: Based on Social Media
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Increasing numbers of public health departments and individuals are using social media platforms to communicate and share information during public health emergencies.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Social stakeholders include the work of governments that fund universities (main providers of research and tertiary education in Australia), regional communities with a stake in general economic prosperity, taxpayers and employees.
2020-03-23 Chen et al SARS-CoV-2: virus dynamics and host response
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other The information provided by To and colleagues is solid scientific evidence on COVID-19 for clinicians and scientists.
2020-03-24 Yu et al Clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-centre, descriptive study
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other If data were missing from the records or clarification was needed, data were obtained by direct communication with attending doctors and other health care providers.
2020-03-24 Banerjee et al Estimating excess 1- year mortality from COVID-19 according to underlying conditions and age in England: a rapid analysis using NHS health records in 3.8 million adults
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We included 3,862,012 individuals aged ≥30 years: 1,957, 935 (50.7%) female, 3,331,280 (86.3%) ≤70 years (mean age 43.5 in male and females) and 530732 (13.7%) >70 years (mean age 78.1 in males and 80.2 in females) (Suppl Table 1 ).
There are implications of this rapid communication for policymakers, clinicians, and the public.
2020-03-25 Guitton et al Cyberpsychology research and COVID-19
Computers in Human Behavior
IV. Other Sharing this theoretical or practical expertise we have to help our colleagues, our students, our organisations, or our governments is something we can all do to get past this crisis.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other These public health frameworks can act as a "checklist" that pharmacists and other healthcare professionals can use to guide their communication and reinforce healthy behaviors.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
The decision to administer antivirals as prophylaxis should be made by the OMT in collaboration with local public health authorities and residents' GPs, depending on local arrangements.
2020-03-27 Moghadami et al Modeling the Corona Virus Outbreak in IRAN
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The knowledge gained can help health planners and planners.
2020-03-30 Wang et al Dementia care during COVID-19
The Lancet
IV. Other For example, mental health professionals, social workers, nursing home administrators, and volunteers should deliver mental health care for people living with dementia collaboratively.
2020-03-30 Truelove et al COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond
medrxiv
IV. Other A more likely strategy will be task shifting among existing health care workers, with physicians treating the most severe cases, nurses the less severe cases, and community health workers addressing mild infections.
2020-03-30 Ross et al Maximizing the Calm Before the Storm: Tiered Surgical Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Utilizing these methods, in the first week of implementation, out of 21 scheduled ACS clinic patients, we have already identified 19 patients able to be managed by virtual or telephone visits (91% reduction in clinic visit exposure).
As the situation evolves staffing will become dynamic requiring a coordinated effort among physicians, advanced practice providers, and residents.
2020-03-31 Udwadia et al How to protect the protectors: 10 lessons to learn for doctors fighting the COVID-19 Coronavirus
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
II. Randomized Controlled Trial In Italy, the virus has infected more than 5,000 doctors, nurses, technicians, ambulance staff and other health employees and resulted in the deaths of 41 HCWs.
2020-04-15 Musazzi et al New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
IV. Prevalence Study In May 2019 more than 30 organisations representing patients, consumers, healthcare professionals and public health advocates stimulated the European Commission to do more in identifying the factors leading to medicines shortages and providing clear and transparent information on the root causes (Various Associations, 2019a).
2020-04-30 Georgalakis et al A disconnected policy network: The UK's response to the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic
Social Science & Medicine
IV. Other The network was a diverse group of scientists, practitioners and policy professionals.
2020-04-30 Asmundson et al How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
Journal of Anxiety Disorders
IV. Other Accordingly, it is critical that public health decision-makers, health authorities, and health care providers across disciplines understand how health anxiety will influence responses to viral outbreaks, including current responses to COVID-19.
2020-04-30 Jorge et al Editorial Note
Computers & Graphics
IV. Other Our LinkedIn group 1 now includes 2200 + students, researchers and professionals.
2020-04-30 Carvalho et al The psychiatric impact of the novel coronavirus outbreak
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Multidisciplinary mental health teams established by health authorities at regional and national levels (including psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and other mental health workers) should provide mental health support for patients and health workers.
2020-05-31 Chughtai et al Policies on the use of respiratory protection for hospital health workers to protect from coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
International Journal of Nursing Studies
IV. Other These conflicting policies may cause confusion for hospital managers, nurses and other health workers.

3 Understanding and mitigating barriers to information-sharing.

3.0.0.1 Highlights

3.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Li et al Puzzle of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (2019-nCoV)
Protein Cell
IV. Computer Model Understanding the transmission characteristics of 2019-nCoV and the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission is critically important for coordinating current screening and containment strategies, and for determining whether the outbreak constitutes a public health emergency of international concern.
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study This perspective paper, written one month after detection and during the outbreak, surveys the virus outbreak from an urban standpoint and advances how smart city networks should work towards enhancing standardization protocols for increased data sharing in the event of outbreaks or disasters, leading to better global understanding and management of the same.
2020 Atlani-Duault et al Tracking online heroisation and blame in epidemics
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Other Tracking heroisation and blame dynamics in realtime, as epidemics unfold, can help health authorities to understand public attitudes both to the threats posed by epidemics and the hope offered by health interventions, to fine-tune targeted health communication strategies accordingly, to identify and amplify local and international heroes, to identify and counter attempts to blame, scapegoat, and spread misinformation, and to improve crisis management practices for the future.
2020-01-26 Liu et al Time-varying transmission dynamics of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China
biorxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We estimated the doubling time, basic reproduction number (R0) and time-varying reproduction number (Rt) of NCP and SARS.Measurements and main resultsAs of February 7, 2020, 34,598 NCP cases were identified in China, and daily confirmed cases decreased after February 4.
These findings could provide important information for optimizing control measures.
2020-02-14 Di Marco et al Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IV. Prevalence Study Without an integrated approach to mitigating the disease emergence consequences of environmental change, countries' abilities to achieve SDGs and GHSA targets will be compromised.
2020-02-19 Yang et al Mental health services for older adults in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other Stakeholders and health policy makers should collaborate to resolve this barrier in order to provide high-quality, timely crisis psychological services to community-dwelling older adults.
2020-02-27 Reusken et al Authors’ response: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
Euro Surveill
IV. Other The readiness survey that we performed served the important purpose of mapping the initial response capacities in Europe and identifying barriers to diagnostic implementation.
2020-02-29 Wang et al Challenges to the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies: reflections on the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in China
BioScience Trends
IV. Other Based on international experiences with pandemic control, the world should emphasize improving the system of emergency reserve medical supplies in the process of establishing and improving public health emergency response systems, and it should promote the establishment of international cooperative programs to jointly deal with public health emergencies of international concern in the future.
2020-02-29 Rodriguez-Morales et al COVID-19 in Latin America: The implications of the first confirmed case in Brazil
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Although most countries in Latin America are trying to step up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 outbreaks, it will be essential to intensify inter-continental and intra-continental, communication and health workforce training.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other 26 The World Bank-funded Emergency Health and Nutrition Project in Yemen is an example of sustaining delivery of essential services while supporting local systems and structures.
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
Timely and accurate reporting of the status of the epidemic and scientific guidance on prevention and infection control played important roles in stabilizing people and overcoming the epidemic .
2020-03-05 Peters et al Understanding the emerging coronavirus: what it means for health security and infection prevention
Journal of Hospital Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

50 Super spreading individuals were found to have a major impact in the previous MERS, SARS, and Ebola pandemics.
The decisions taken, both on national and international levels, will help inform how we react to future pandemics and health security challenges.
2020-03-06 Shang et al On the use of corticosteroids for 2019-nCoV pneumonia
The Lancet
IV. Other Broad dissemination in both Chinese and English will accomplish the goals of communicating timely and crucial findings to the international scientific community, while also disseminating this information to health-care workers on the frontline who need to understand the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.
2020-03-06 Baker et al Estimating the burden of United States workers exposed to infection or disease: a key factor in containing risk of COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
IV. Other Understanding which occupational groups are exposed to infection and disease in the workplace can help to inform public health risk response and management for COVID-19, and subsequent infectious disease outbreaks.
2020-03-07 Taiaroa et al Direct RNA sequencing and early evolution of SARS-CoV-2
biorxiv
IV. Other Following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, genomic analyses have played a key role in the 41 public health response by informing the design of appropriate molecular diagnostics and 42 corroborating epidemiological efforts to trace contacts .
2020-03-11 Mao et al Implications of COVID-19 for patients with pre-existing digestive diseases
The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology
IV. Other These data and experience with guidance on how to manage patients with underlining comorbidities in China could facilitate integrated care for patients globally.
2020-03-15 Deng et al The global battle against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Prevalence Study

Just in about 2.5 months, COVID-19 has been spreading quickly to over 140 countries, infected more than 156,000 people, ranging from newborn to 98 years of age, and killed at least 5,800 patients, mostly in Wuhan, Hubei province of China.
Understanding the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents towards COVID-19 during the early stage of disease outbreak could help the authority effectively implement preventive and control measures.
2020-03-17 Wang et al Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Preparedness is the key to navigating any public health crisis, and malariaendemic countries must be prepared for the challenges that COVID-19 might bring while minimising disruption to malaria control.
2020-03-17 Alwan et al Evidence informing the UK's COVID-19 public health response must be transparent
The Lancet
IV. Other Evidence informing the UK's COVID-19 public health response must be transparent
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study The information and data from these exercises should be analysed to build and inform readiness and response plans for preventing and controlling health emergencies including the outbreak of COVID-19.

22 Analysis of other risk variables associated with tackling an infectious disease outbreak and managing health emergencies would benefit understanding of existing country capacities, including vulnerabilities due to socioeconomic conditions, comorbid conditions, and lack of health infrastructure, which we did not take into account.

8 Countries have been enhancing preparedness through the implementation and regular assessment of IHR national capacities to mitigate the effect of public health emergencies, including the emer gence of a novel pathogen.
2020-03-18 Liew et al Safe patient transport for COVID-19
Crit Care
IV. Other Mitigating the spread of COVID-19 is a national priority in Singapore , and part of this effort involves planning and conducting safe patient transport for suspected or confirmed cases.
2020-03-20 Costantini et al Response and role of palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national telephone survey of hospices in Italy
medrxiv
IV. Other Background Palliative care is an essential component of healthcare in pandemics, contributing to symptom control, psychological support, and supporting triage and complex decision making.
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Health care organizations can provide information on managing stress, reducing burnout, and identifying mental health professionals available to support clinicians .
2020-03-23 Zareie et al A model for COVID-19 prediction in Iran based on China parameters
medrxiv
IV. Other The government's strategy of communicating with the public to inform them about infection prevention is also crucial.
2020-03-24 Wood et al Precautions and Procedures for Coronary and Structural Cardiac Interventions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Guidance from Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology
Canadian Journal of Cardiology
IV. Other The key principles of this document are to maintain essential interventional cardiovascular care while minimizing risks of COVID-19 to patients/staff and maintaining the overall healthcare resources.
2020-03-24 Portnoy et al Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
IV. Other 6 Health plans, employers, hospital systems, and media outlets should work to overcome these barriers by educating people that TM is an effective alternative and safer under the current circumstances, expanding network reimbursement coverage for physicians to see their patients through TM, making people aware that a TM benefit exists, with step-by-step instructions on how it can be accessed, helping people understand how TM works, and continuing to reduce cost barriers to accessing TM.
2020-03-24 Hoe GAN et al Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Safety and Health at Work
IV. Other Policies and infrastructure to support clear and timely communications will facilitate effective cascading of information to frontline staff, enabling their work and facilitating their interactions with the public .
2020-03-25 Prem et al The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

Each simulation started with 200 or 2000 infectious individuals I 0 , 15 with the rest of the population being in the susceptible state.
38 Policy makers are advised to reapportion their resources to focus on mitigating the effects of potentially soon-to-be overwhelmed health systems.
2020-03-25 Bao et al COVID-19 Computed Tomography Findings: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of the American College of Radiology
I. Systematic Review

Of them, 28 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria, including 6 duplicated populations, 15 case reports/case series, 3 without related data, and 4 review articles.
In contrast, thin-section chest CT examination plays a key role in assisting diagnosis.
2020-03-26 Vessey et al Everything old is new again: COVID-19 and public health
Journal of Pediatric Nursing
IV. Other Global public health initiatives are focused on preventing, containing, and mitigating the spread and severity of the disease.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other The HBM is a model that has been used to study behaviors related to preventing or mitigating disease.

To that end, the HBM's constructs of perceived threat, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, and cues to action can be immediately deployed to help reinforce COVID-19 limiting behaviors, such as social distancing and remaining in the home whenever possible.

In the case of COVID-19 prevention behaviors, perceived barriers are likely to be profound in many cases.

As trusted, community-facing healthcare professionals, pharmacists are uniquely suited to bring about change in patient behaviors.Community pharmacists using HBM to reinforce COVID-19 mitigation behaviors should appropriately emphasize the severity and susceptibility of the threat, emphasize barriers to acting, help patients identify ways to overcome barriers to acting, and reinforce self-efficacy beliefs.

Community pharmacists are likely to have a direct role in combating misinformation and helping patients select healthy behaviors.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation) NR ☐Information/description of the types of facilitators and barriers that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., practitioners have the skills to deliver the recommended care, sufficient equipment is not available to ensure all eligible members of the population receive mammography) ☐Types of cost information that were considered (e.g., economic evaluations, drug acquisition costs)

☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation) ☐Information/description of the types of facilitators and barriers that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., practitioners have the skills to deliver the recommended care, sufficient equipment is not available to ensure all eligible members of the population receive mammography)

☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation) ☐Information/description of the types of facilitators and barriers that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., practitioners have the skills to deliver the recommended care, sufficient equipment is not available to ensure all eligible members of the population receive mammography) ☐How the information influenced the guideline development process and/or formation of the recommendations 19.
2020-03-27 Lee et al Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study However, urban settings also offer new opportunities (table), such as securing the commitment of local leaders and strengthening public health networks to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats early.
2020-03-29 Tan et al Response and Operating Room Preparation for the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Perspective from the National Heart Centre Singapore
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
IV. Other Teamwork, good communication across all departments and willingness to listen are key components to maintaining good patient care even in times of crisis.
2020-03-29 Shi et al Knowledge and attitudes of medical staff in Chinese psychiatric hospitals regarding COVID-19
Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health
IV. Prevalence Study

From February 1-15, 2020, the questionnaire link was sent to 200 psychiatrists and nurses, and 10 psychiatrist groups (approximately 20 chat groups of between 8 and 120 participants) from the author's Wechat account.
Analyzing the data by the sex, age, education, and marital status of the respondents, univariate analysis showed no difference between their willingness to care for psychiatric patients suffering from COVID-19 infection (Table 3 ).
2020-03-31 Lai et al Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
IV. Other Governments should be responsible for providing accurate knowledge and clarifying misinformation to help the public face this novel infection.
2020-03-31 Bell et al 2020 year of the nurse and midwife: Meeting new challenges
International Emergency Nursing
IV. Other These changes are endangering our planet as well as ourselves and prominent nursing organisations are highlighting the essential role that nurses have to play in public health, clinical care, emergency services, research, and advocacy to reduce and respond to these health consequences .
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other In any biological disaster, themes of fear, uncertainty, and stigmatisation are common and may act as barriers to appropriate medical and mental health interventions.
2020-04-01 Jarynowski et al Perception of emergent epidemic of COVID-2019 / SARS CoV-2 on the Polish Internet
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis In addition, Internet media analysis could fill gaps in socio-medical research on collective actions during an important public health disruption event such as infectious diseases.
2020-04-15 Musazzi et al New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
IV. Prevalence Study For mitigating shortages that affect the Union, the stronger coordination at EU-level and the harmonization of communication, risk-assessment and risk-management strategies are desirable and urgent.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study These recommendations concern knowledge and science provision in understanding disaster and health-related emergency risks, the extension of disaster risk governance to manage both disaster risks and potential health-emergencies, particularly for humanitarian coordination aspects; and the strengthening of community-level preparedness and response.

In addition, the health sciences should be more involved in the community of disaster risk management, to advance our understanding of outbreaks and pandemics, the health impacts of all hazards, and improve data collection .

4 How to recruit, support, and coordinate local (non-Federal) expertise and capacity relevant to public health emergency response (public, private, commercial and non-profit, including academic).

4.0.0.1 Highlights

4.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Dunlop et al The coronavirus outbreak: the central role of primary care in emergency preparedness and response
BJGP open
IV. Other National primary care bodies can coordinate with public health leads to cascade information to practitioners, communicate with the public, and collate health intelligence from the frontline primary care.
2020 WANG et al Expert recommendations for diabetes with or without COVID-19 management in communities
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
IV. Other Here, expert recommendations were developed by Chinese diabetologists, healthcare providers, and public health administrators to improve the ability of primary health facilities and provide standardized basic public health and medical services throughout country.
2020 ZHANG et al Analysis on the layout of China’s emergency research projects during the public health emergency of COVID-19
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Methods Literature investigation method is applied to collect information of scientific research and emergency research projects of COVID-19 funded since January 20th by different entities including national, provincial and municipal administrative departments, public health agencies, research institutes, universities and industries.
2020-01-31 Koenig et al 2019-nCoV: The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool Applied to a Novel Emerging Coronavirus
West J Emerg Med
IV. Prevalence Study

One preliminary, small-scale study of 41 patients in Wuhan China, reported 6 deaths (15% mortality) with a median age of 49.0 years.
Emergency physicians (EPs), emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, and other healthcare workers who encounter patients with suspected 2019-nCoV infection must inform the appropriate authorities, including but not limited to hospital infection control and local or state public health agencies.
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
Closer collaboration between local animal and human health authorities within the current epidemic disease prevention programmes will provide educational and training opportunities to promote risk-mitigation knowledge, skills and best practice in local communities.
2020-02-12 Hébert-Dufresne et al Beyond R0: the importance of contact tracing when predicting epidemics
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Despite the potential for genome sequencing to revolutionize outbreak response, the global public health community still struggles to coordinate data sharing across international borders, between academic researchers, and with private companies .
2020-02-12 Ung et al Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study For pharmacists to assume a role in the health emergency preparedness and response arrangements at community level, public private partnership and the application of real-world data have been shown to be vital.
2020-02-19 Heaton et al Frontiers in antiviral therapy and immunotherapy
Clin Transl Immunology
IV. Prevalence Study Plumbing work on research funding and development pipelines through recent changes in the structure of government funding, 2 new public and private joint ventures and specialist undergraduate and postgraduate courses now aim to incorporate pathways to translation at the earliest stages.
2020-02-21 Chang et al Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety
Transfusion Medicine Reviews
IV. Prevalence Study

In a study on the viral load in different samples among 37 MERS patients, investigators found that nearly half of serum samples tested yielded a viral RNA signal during the first week after diagnosis and that the viral load ranged from about 2.1×10 2 to 2.51×10 5 copies/mL.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for profit sectors.
2020-02-23 Zhai et al From Isolation to Coordination: How Can Telemedicine Help Combat the COVID-19 Outbreak?
medrxiv
IV. Other The platform could aggregate COVID-19 patient records across 126 connected hospitals and rapidly expand to enable open collaborations with key stakeholders such as government authorities, research institutions and laboratories.
2020-02-28 Fadel et al Coronavirus outbreak: the role of companies in preparedness and responses
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Other Helped by their occupational practitioners, healthcare advisers, and safety professionals, companies that have a financial capacity and responsibilities (including governmental, federal, or state administrations) will thus have to prepare their business continuity planning for when cases of infected patients occur in the company.

Public and private companies must continue to produce or provide their services, but with consideration of the health context.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other WHO's global COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan 13 therefore prioritises countries with weak health systems for technical and operational support from international partners.
2020-03-04 Chang et al Weaponized Interdependence: China's Economic Statecraft and Social Penetration against Taiwan
Orbis
IV. Prevalence Study Chinese state-owned or state-backed enterprises constantly use their enormous financial resources to lure Taiwanese companies, especially those with crucial know-how, to cooperate and jointly develop business.
2020-03-12 Schwartz et al Climate Change, Covid-19, Preparedness, and Consciousness
EXPLORE
IV. Other Once the reality is faced that healthcare is calibrated to profit not wellbeing, it is easy to see why hospital corporations are closing rural hospitals.
2020-03-12 Liu et al Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases
ACS Cent Sci
IV. Other These trends reflect immense interest and desire from the scientific community, including both academic and industrial organizations as well as clinicians, to identify new methods to halt the progression of this epidemic disease and to prevent infection and transmission in the future.
2020-03-13 Trilla et al One world, one health: The novel coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic
Medicina Clínica (English Edition)
IV. Other The Ministry of Health, through the Health Alert and Emergency Coordination Center, leads the response effectively, working with the Public Health Services of the Autonomous Communities.
2020-03-14 Su et al Comparison of clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as experienced in Taiwan
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-16 Liu et al Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 Outbreak in China Hardest-hit Areas: Gender differences matter
Psychiatry Research
IV. Prevalence Study

A total of 285 participants were recruited in the study, among which 124(43.5%) were currently in Wuhan, and 188(66%) were previously in Wuhan.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-16 Sugishita et al Preliminary evaluation of voluntary event cancellation as a countermeasure against the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan as of 11 March, 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The peak without VEC is estimated as being reached on 9 June with 2.78 million newly diagnosed patients with symptoms.
At the same time, it was advised that small business and private meetings be cancelled voluntarily.
2020-03-17 Buckee et al Improving epidemic surveillance and response: big data is dead, long live big data
The Lancet Digital Health
IV. Computer Model Companies are incentivised by profit, and are rightly beholden to national regulatory frameworks and the public with respect to the data they collect.
2020-03-20 Khatri et al YouTube as source of information on 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak: A cross sectional study of English and Mandarin content
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Source of videos was categorized into one of five groups : academic institutions or hospitals, news agencies, government agencies like regional health departments, WHO or independent users.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Social stakeholders include the work of governments that fund universities (main providers of research and tertiary education in Australia), regional communities with a stake in general economic prosperity, taxpayers and employees.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Fourth, national, regional, and international organisations need to cooperate and collaborate to optimise limited supplies, using a whole of government approach.
2020-03-20 Legido-Quigley et al Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 6 Singapore health authorities provide daily information on mainstream media, the Ministry of Health has Telegram and WhatsApp groups set up with doctors in the public and private sectors where more detailed clinical and logistics information is shared, and authorities use websites to debunk circulating misinformation.
2020-03-21 Hsieh et al Putting resiliency of a health system to the test: COVID-19 in Taiwan
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
IV. Other Our ongoing action to control the spread has been the collaborative work of the private and public sector, key players at the national and local levels, and shared knowledge amongst different expertise ranging from transportation, immigration, economic affairs, labor, education, and healthcare.

Real-time display of mask availability in local pharmacies across the country was quickly established by the public and private sector.
2020-03-23 Vu et al Financing Vaccines for Global Health Security
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study International collaborations like CEPI have drawn extensive public, private, NGO, and academic attention to the perils of global epidemic unpreparedness .
2020-03-23 Sugishita et al Insignificant effect of counter measure for coronavirus infectious disease -19 in Japan
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study At the same time, it was advised that small business and private meetings be cancelled voluntarily.
2020-03-24 Chavez et al Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A primer for emergency physicians
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study

60 One study of 204 patients with confirmed COVID-19 suggests 48.5% of patients have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.
Emergency medical services (EMS) directors and public health authorities working in conjunction with the CDC will need to modify emergency preparedness strategies to address COVID-19.
2020-03-25 Uslupehlivan et al Glycoinformatics approach for identifying target positions to inhibit initial binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein to the host cell
biorxiv
IV. Other This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-25 Pata et al A Commentary on “A new item in Italian law: Revenge malpractice. A Commentary on Legal & Ethical Dilemmas in Incidental Findings During Surgery. Review article” (Int J Surg. 2020;76:51–52) Revenge Lawsuit is a Puzzle Piece of the Global Crisis of Italian Healthcare System
International Journal of Surgery
IV. Other The reduction in accountability and effectiveness of public hospitals may benefit public-funded private clinics, directly or indirectly linked to economic and political lobbying, to induce promising healthcare workers to leave their jobs.
2020-03-25 Armocida et al The Italian health system and the COVID-19 challenge
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

2 The Lombardy region has the heaviest burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, with (as of March 19, 2020) 19 884 total cases of the disease, 2168 deaths, and 1006 patients requiring advanced respiratory support.
Third, in response to emergencies, solid partnerships between the private and public sector should be institutionalised.
2020-03-26 Miao et al Early chest computed tomography to diagnose COVID-19 from suspected patients: A multicenter retrospective study
medrxiv
IV. Other This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-26 Viswanath et al Working through the COVID-19 outbreak: Rapid review and recommendations for MSK and allied heath personnel
Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
IV. Other This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other Community pharmacists can help address these barriers when they arise by keeping contact information for local governmental and nongovernmental organizations that may provide support for people who are experiencing economic distress.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
Infection control practitioners may be available for advice in local hospitals, state and territory health departments, or as private consultants.
2020-03-27 Dudley et al Disparities in Age-Specific Morbidity and Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 in China and the Republic of Korea
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis No external, corporate or institutional funding support was received for this work.
2020-03-27 Dinh et al Radiation Therapy in King County, Washington During The COVID-19 Pandemic: Balancing Patient Care, Transmission Mitigation and Resident Training
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other Many university and medical students on academic furlough due to the pandemic have 124 volunteered to serve as childcare resources specifically to healthcare providers.
2020-03-28 Bhat et al COVID 2019 Outbreak: The disappointment in Indian Teachers
Asian Journal of Psychiatry
IV. Other This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-03-28 Krishnakumar et al COVID 19 in INDIA: Strategies to combat from combination threat of life and livelihood
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
IV. Other Hence money deficit will be a major problem for the government to implement this kind of 22 plans, for that government can ask or take ten percentage of salary from organized sector 23 workers (both from government and private), and government contain grains have to be 24 distributed through Public Distribution System (PDS).
2020-03-30 Ferstad et al A model to forecast regional demand for COVID-19 related hospital beds
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The model is actively being used by several academic medical centers and policy makers, and we believe that broader access will continue to aid community and hospital leaders in their response to COVID-19.
2020-03-30 Gupta et al Trend Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak in India
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Private hospitals and labs have come forward in support of the Government of India to overcome the challenge of weak healthcare infrastructure in India.
2020-03-30 Erikson et al Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Since the 1970s, however, private sector involvement in civic problem-solving has increased.
2020-03-31 Yamey et al Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines
The Lancet
IV. Other CEPI is supported by a World Bank financial intermediary fund that brings together public, philanthropic, and private funding to respond to global priorities.
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other First, multidisciplinary mental health teams established by health authorities at regional and national levels (including psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and other mental health workers) should deliver mental health support to patients and health workers.
2020-04-01 Xie et al Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus — an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study Funding Source: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
2020-04-01 Castro et al Impact of COVID-19 on psychiatric assessment in emergency and outpatient settings measured using electronic health records
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The cohort included all individuals seen in outpatient visits or emergency rooms across 2 academic medical centers and 3 community affiliate hospitals between January 2, 2019 and March 25, 2020.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study International funding organisations, regional government bodies and private entities have proposed major financial measures.
2020-05-31 Friedman et al She Ji: The Next Five Years
She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation
IV. Other Our mission is to further design-driven innovation in industry, business, non-profit services, and government through economic and social value creation.

5 Integration of federal/state/local public health surveillance systems.

5.0.0.1 Highlights

5.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Dunlop et al The coronavirus outbreak: the central role of primary care in emergency preparedness and response
BJGP open
IV. Other Whilst strong epidemiology and surveillance systems are indispensable tools for the detection and monitoring of outbreaks and public health emergencies, strong primary care systems form the foundation of any emergency response.
2020 Amodio et al Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2): First Evidences From International Scientific Literature and Pending Questions
Healthcare (Basel)
IV. Prevalence Study Chinese health authorities have taken prompt public health measures, including intensive surveillance, epidemiological investigations, and closure of the market on 1 January, 2020 ( Figure 1 ).
2020 Hui et al The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health — The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China - International Journal of Infectious Diseases
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other The Chinese health authorities have taken prompt public health measures including intensive surveillance, epidemiological investigations, and closure of the market on 1 Jan 2020.
2020 Tao et al Healing the schism between public health and medicine, promoting the integration of prevention and treatment
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
IV. Other In future, when combating with novel infectious diseases and public health emergencies, the response capacity of public health system and treatment capacity of clinical system will be significantly improved, while the situation on insufficient integration of prevention and treatment is bound to be reversed.
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study The standardization can be achieved by, for example, ensuring that all the devices and systems are linked into a single network, like was done in the U.S., where all the surveillance of healthcare were combined into the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSH) .
2020 Zhang et al Recommended psychological crisis intervention response to the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in China: a model of West China Hospital
Precision Clinical Medicine
IV. Other During the epidemic, rapid integration of the government and social forces into the Internet framework can maximize effective management of the psychological crisis.
2020-02-02 Zhang et al Transmission and epidemiological characteristics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected Pneumonia (COVID-19): preliminary evidence obtained in comparison with 2003-SARS
medrxiv
IV. Other Subsequently, the Chinese government implemented a series of reforms in the public health field, such as reorganization of the CDC, training public health professionals, and establishing the disease information system covering the whole country, the establishment of a complete reporting system for infectious diseases and an excellent mechanism for handling public health emergencies, etc.
2020-02-09 Zhao et al Analysis of the epidemic growth of the early 2019-nCoV outbreak using internationally confirmed cases
medrxiv
IV. Other Our selected countries and regions also have good public health surveillance systems and could more easily identified suspected cases in border control.
2020-02-18 Li et al Risk map of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China: proportionate control is needed
medrxiv
IV. Other Our model classified 442 cities with the four levels of response for public health emergencies (Fig.
2020-02-20 Deng et al Characteristics of and Public Health Responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in China
J Clin Med
IV. Prevalence Study The strengthening of public health surveillance, hygiene knowledge publicity, and monitoring of public places and key groups is required.
2020-02-24 El Zowalaty et al From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study

However, it was recently reported that the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention isolated SARS-CoV-2 from 33 samples out of 585 environmental samples collected from Huanan Seafood Market .
The implementation and development of One Health collaborations on a global scale are critical to reduce the threats of emerging viruses .
2020-02-29 Lee et al Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
Public Health
IV. Other 10, 11 Surveillance systems are the eyes of the health system e without them the health system would be blind.

The other component of well-developed health protection systems are strong infectious disease surveillance systems.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other 20,21 WHO's surveillance system on attacks on health care is active in six EMR countries; 22 data are being used for advocacy and mitigation measures.

Accelerating implementation is a major priority for 2020, focusing on surveillance, laboratories, preparedness, EOCs, risk communications, and rapid response teams.

Innovative tools such as the NCD kit and the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP), which integrates mental health services in primary health care, are being introduced throughout the EMR.
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
Since SARS in 2003, China has implemented legislation on the surveillance, reporting and early warning system of infectious diseases, requiring the regular release of information during public health emergencies.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Global surveillance and communication efforts improve knowledge about the virus, the disease and transmission patterns.
2020-03-06 Henry et al Preliminary epidemiological analysis on children and adolescents with novel coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei Province, China: an observational study utilizing crowdsourced data
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Results: A total of 82 patients were included.
4, 5 Crowdsourcing enables the collection of data from multiple platforms including health-care-oriented social networks, government and public health agencies, and global news sources.
2020-03-06 Aleta et al Evaluation of the potential incidence of COVID-19 and effectiveness of contention measures in Spain: a data-driven approach
medrxiv
IV. Other Ever since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) and national public health authorities have been tracing and reporting on the evolution of the outbreak.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Existing surveillance databases, new study tools, and innovation methodologies may help to identify population health risks and support Health-EDRM policy development.
2020-03-10 Lauer et al The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application
Ann Intern Med
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We collected data from 181 cases with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection detected outside Hubei province before 24 February 2020 ( Table 1) .
The incubation period can inform several important public health activities for infectious diseases, including active monitoring, surveillance, control, and modeling.
2020-03-15 Xiang et al The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: managing challenges through mental health service reform
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other In China, the public psychiatric hospitals are either run by the Ministry of Health, or by the public security and civil affairs systems.
2020-03-18 Lazzerini et al COVID-19 in Italy: momentous decisions and many uncertainties
The Lancet Global Health
IV. Other 4 These difficult decisions on public health measures were taken without the support of official, real-time data being available for the public on key surveillance indicators.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Any public health events require incident management systems to be followed.
2020-03-18 Choe et al Coronavirus disease-19: The First 7,755 Cases in the Republic of Korea
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We report the first 7,755 patients with confirmed COVID19 in Korea as of March 13, 2020.
To obtain demographic, epidemiological, and early clinical information, COVID-19 reporting and surveillance data were retrieved from Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC)-operated National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS) .
2020-03-18 Jacobsen et al Will COVID-19 generate global preparedness?
The Lancet
IV. Other 8 The Sendai Framework complements the IHR by integrating infrastructure, climate change, and economic considerations into disaster management plans and promoting inclusive policies that protect vulnerable populations during all phases of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.
2020-03-20 Wenham et al COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other 11 Given their front-line interaction with communities, it is concerning that women have not been fully incorporated into global health security surveillance, detection, and prevention mechanisms.
2020-03-20 Bannister-Tyrrell et al Preliminary evidence that higher temperatures are associated with lower incidence of COVID-19, for cases reported globally up to 29th February 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study This indicator is a weighted average of indicators related to laboratory systems, real-time surveillance and reporting, epidemiology workforce, and data integration between human, animal and environmental health sectors, each of which reflects a core capacity defined under the International Health Regulations .
2020-03-20 Zhao et al Chinese Public Attention to COVID-19 Epidemic: Based on Social Media
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Increasing numbers of public health departments and individuals are using social media platforms to communicate and share information during public health emergencies.
2020-03-20 Legido-Quigley et al Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Fourth, the three health systems developed plans to sustain routine health-care services, but the integration of services has been problematic.

The interoperability of systems between the government health department and public hospitals in Hong Kong is not optimal.

The first is that integration of services in the health system and across other sectors amplifies the ability to absorb and adapt to shock.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study The partnership has six work streams: laboratory diagnosis and subtyping; surveillance, including screening at points of entry and cross-border activities; infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities; clinical management of people with severe COVID-19; risk communication; and supply-chain management and stockpiles.
2020-03-20 Gilbert et al Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 27, 28 National public health capabilities and infrastructures remain at the core of global health security, because they are the first line of defence in infectious disease emergencies.
2020-03-20 Yang et al The Preventive Strategies of Community Hospital in the Battle of Fighting Pandemic COVID-19 in Taiwan
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

Till now, there are more than 166,000 confirmed COVID-19 and 6,400 patients died in the disaster.
Staff health surveillance is very important.
2020-03-25 Cheng et al Initial rapid and proactive response for the COVID-19 outbreak — Taiwan's experience
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association
IV. Other Before the outbreak, Taiwan CDC has established comprehensive surveillance systems that included laboratory and social media surveillance.
2020-03-30 Gupta et al Trend Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak in India
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model His area of research includes security, information systems and E-Governance.
2020-03-31 Singer et al What is ahead for health policy and technology in the 2020s?
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Other Examples include the benefits of mobility for training health professionals, generous funding of R & D on healthcare through initiatives of the European Parliament and Commission, integrated regulation and surveillance of medicines and vaccines overseen by the European Medicines Agency, in partnership with responsible national authorities, and Universal Health Coverage across the region through the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) system .
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other A public communication and media strategy, delivered through designated communication centres and/or broadly accessible networks, should provide regular, reliable and transparent public communication.
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model For impactful epidemic management, societies need to model their strategies, develop an advanced surveillance system for early detection of cases, facilitate implementation of preventive interventions, and enable effective coordination of healthcare professionals, public health authorities, policy makers and government.
2020-04-01 Niehus et al Using observational data to quantify bias of traveller-derived COVID-19 prevalence estimates in Wuhan, China
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

We fitted our model using Stan version 2.19.1, 9 and we drew 80 000 samples from the joint posterior distribution of θ high , θ medium , θ low and β using four independent chains (20 000 samples each), and discarded for each chain the first 500 samples (burn-in).
Our findings will support rapid deployment of outbreak surveillance and control capacities in regions at high risk of case importation paired with low surveillance capacity.

Surveillance capacity was assessed using the Global Health Security Index, which is an assessment of health security across 195 locations agreeing to the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005

Using the second component of the Global Health Security index to stratify likely case-detection capacities, the ability to detect imported cases relative to Singapore was 40% (95% HPDI 22–67) among locations with high surveillance capacity, 37% (18–68) among locations with medium surveillance capacity, and 11% (0–42) among locations with low surveillance capacity.
2020-04-01 Amir-Behghadami et al The importance of designing and implementing participatory surveillance system: An approach as early detection and prevention of novel coronavirus (2019-nCov)
American Journal of Infection Control
IV. Other 9 Participatory Surveillance System (PSS) is an approach to diagnosing illnesses that allow the public to report signals directly, providing a quick visualization of data collected to the user and public health organizations.

At the same time, development and implementation of surveillance systems are essential to identify and respond quickly to such threats.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study The UNDRR reiterates that the Sendai Framework emphasizes the need for resilient health systems and the integration of disaster risk management into health care provision at all levels.
2020-04-30 Georgalakis et al A disconnected policy network: The UK's response to the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic
Social Science & Medicine
IV. Other Global health governance is increasingly focused on epidemic and pandemic health emergencies that require an interdisciplinary approach to accessing scientific knowledge to guide preparedness and crisis response.
2020-07-31 Artika et al Pathogenic viruses: Molecular detection and characterization
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
IV. Prevalence Study The laboratory biosecurity system should cover physical security, virus control and accountability, personnel security, transport security, and information security; the implementation of which needs to be integrated with the overall biosafety plan (Artika and Ma'roef, 2018) .
2020-12-31 Song et al Prospect and application of Internet of Things technology for prevention of SARIs
Clinical eHealth
IV. Prevalence Study mIoT is the science of intelligent identification, location, monitoring, and AI services for SARI patients using RFID, Global Positioning Systems, different sensing devices, information exchange, and communication according to an agreed arrangement.

6 Value of investments in baseline public health response infrastructure preparedness

6.0.0.1 Highlights

6.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Ralph et al 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: Human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
IV. Prevalence Study

On 8 January 2020, it was reported that a novel coronavirus had been sequenced from one patient and subsequently identified in some of the other patients with pneumonia , later reported as 15 of the 59 patients .
Deficiencies in outbreak preparedness and healthcare network coordination efforts must ultimately be considered in response efforts.

Community and healthcare preparedness in response to coronavirus outbreaks remain ongoing obstacles for global public health.
2020 Guo et al COVID-19 Pandemic: global epidemiological trends and China's subsequent preparedness and responses
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
IV. Other This study analyzed global COVID-19 epidemiological trends, examined impact of the pandemic on global health security, diplomacy, and social environment in China, and provided short- and long-term strategic policy recommendations for China's subsequent preparedness and responses.
2020 ZHANG et al Analysis on the layout of China’s emergency research projects during the public health emergency of COVID-19
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Conclusions In the campaign of science and technology to deal with COVID-19, the leadership of Chinese government and their coordination with local agencies facilitated quick response in both R&D investment and supporting policies.
2020-01-27 Nkengasong et al China’s response to a novel coronavirus stands in stark contrast to the 2002 SARS outbreak response
Nat Med
IV. Prevalence Study This investment in core public-health systems and infrastructure will no doubt be critical in the response to the current 2019-nCoV outbreak.
2020-02-12 Ung et al Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study For pharmacists to assume a role in the health emergency preparedness and response arrangements at community level, public private partnership and the application of real-world data have been shown to be vital.
2020-02-13 Smith et al Straining the System: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Preparedness for Concomitant Disasters
American Journal of Public Health
IV. Other The unprecedented pace of the public health response to COVID-19 has only been possible because of prior investments in public health preparedness.
2020-02-14 Di Marco et al Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IV. Prevalence Study Better consideration of EID risk under a One Health lens can thus advance key international initiatives, such as the GHSA, which emphasizes multisectoral solutions to strengthen preparedness capacity for prevention, detection, and response to biological threats.
2020-02-18 Li et al Risk map of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China: proportionate control is needed
medrxiv
IV. Other Our model classified 442 cities with the four levels of response for public health emergencies (Fig.
2020-02-18 Cheng et al 2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know
Infection
IV. Other At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities.
2020-02-27 Reusken et al Authors’ response: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
Euro Surveill
IV. Other Therefore, we maintain that the urgent implementation and monitoring of diagnostic capacities and capabilities for SARS-CoV-2 in Europe is proportional to the containment and expected mitigation phase of the global public health response and is critical for care of local patients.
2020-02-27 Peng et al Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know
British Journal of Anaesthesia
IV. Prevalence Study

The median age of infected individuals is between 49 and 56 yr. 1 13 Children are rarely diagnosed with 2019-nCoV, a phenomenon that has not yet been explained.
As a result of these events, significant investments have been made into public health and infection prevention programmes in many jurisdictions.
2020-02-28 Fadel et al Coronavirus outbreak: the role of companies in preparedness and responses
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Other Coronavirus outbreak: the role of companies in preparedness and responses
2020-02-29 Lee et al Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
Public Health
IV. Other Unfortunately, in resource-constrained settings, investment in this critical health protection infrastructure is a low priority compared with other health priorities.

12 Disinvestment in health protection is risky as it is not easy to build up health protection infrastructure, skills, and workforce rapidly.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other WHO's global COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan13 therefore prioritises countries with weak health systems for technical and operational support from international partners.
2020-03-05 Wilder-Smith et al Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

On Feb 18, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published their data of the first 72 314 patients including 44 672 patients with confirmed COVID19.
Organisations such as the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and the Global Research Collaboration For Infectious Disease Preparedness, supported by the WHO Research Blueprint and its Global Coordinating Mechanism, were able to accelerate the outbreak response and rapidly initiate technical platforms for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study It is now also advisable for countries to review their pandemic preparedness plan, including healthcare system surge capacity and plans for business and essential service continuity.
2020-03-06 Wu et al Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Computer Model Preparedness plans and mitigation interventions should be readied for quick deployment globally.

Above all, for health protection within China and internationally, especially those locations with the closest travel links with major Chinese ports, preparedness plans should be readied for deployment at short notice, including securing supply chains of pharmaceuticals, personal pro tective equipment, hospital supplies, and the necessary human resources to deal with the consequences of a global outbreak of this magnitude.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Health-Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) emerged as the latest knowledge, research and policy paradigm shift from response to preparedness and health risk management in non-emergency times .
2020-03-12 Wu et al The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: what we know
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Our findings on operational readiness capacities and enabling function, which are low in many low-resource countries, underline the importance of increasing investments in scaling up IHR capacities, as described in the 2019 annual report of the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board.

WHO bench marks for IHR capacities include corresponding actions that can increase a country's emergency preparedness, and are used to strengthen a country's emergency preparedness and health security.

A country's response capacity depends on the strength of its emergency preparedness and the regular testing and updating of national plans and capacities.

Few studies have highlighted the strength and gaps of national capacities in relation to operational readiness against health emergencies and the state of national International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) implementation.

8 Another challenge underpinning low national preparedness capacities is insufficient investment in human capital and poor continuity planning.

Capacity building and collaboration between countries are needed to strengthen global readiness for outbreak control.

Response capacity depends on availability of preparedness and response plans and mechanisms and regular testing for functionality and updating them to address gaps.

Findings Of 182 countries, 52 (28%) had prevent capacities at levels 1 or 2, and 60 (33%) had response capacities at levels 1 or 2.

Many countries are struggling to sustain or develop their national preparedness capacities, primarily because of a lack of resources, competing national priorities, and a high turnover of health-care workers.
2020-03-18 Jacobsen et al Will COVID-19 generate global preparedness?
The Lancet
IV. Other 8 The Sendai Framework complements the IHR by integrating infrastructure, climate change, and economic considerations into disaster management plans and promoting inclusive policies that protect vulnerable populations during all phases of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.
2020-03-20 Gilbert et al Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 27, 28 National public health capabilities and infrastructures remain at the core of global health security, because they are the first line of defence in infectious disease emergencies.
2020-03-20 Magdon-Ismail et al Machine Learning the Phenomenology of COVID-19 From Early Infection Dynamics
medrxiv
IV. Other And, the information is useful for planning and health-system preparedness.
2020-03-23 Vu et al Financing Vaccines for Global Health Security
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Vaccine developers under this model would most likely sell subscriptions to governments, building upon existing infrastructure, such as the U.S. government's biodefense and pandemic preparedness programs.

Nevertheless, investments in preparedness for biological threats remain underfunded, leaving the world vulnerable to catastrophic .
2020-03-23 Nasab et al Bibliometric Analysis of Global Scientific Research on SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19)
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study 1101 Preparedness plans and mitigation interventions should be readied for quick deployment globally.
2020-03-24 Hoe GAN et al Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Safety and Health at Work
IV. Other Learning from SARS, one of Singapore's national strategies for pandemic preparedness is the stockpiling of PPE, which has been progressively released to public healthcare institutions since the upgrading of the COVID-19 risk assessment level.
2020-03-24 Simcock et al COVID-19: Global Radiation Oncology’s Targeted Response for Pandemic Preparedness
Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study

During the weekend over 121 individuals from 17 countries and 6 continents contributed to the online discussion.
COVID-19: Global Radiation Oncology’s Targeted Response for Pandemic Preparedness
2020-03-27 Garrett et al COVID-19: the medium is the message
The Lancet
IV. Other The Redfield FY 2021 budget reduction would be partly achieved by reductions in spending on programmes for emerging and zoonotic infectious diseases, global health, and public health preparedness and response-the three areas most closely tied to the COVID-19 epidemic.
2020-03-27 Lee et al Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study Preparedness is a crucial investment because its cost is small compared with the unmitigated impact of a health emergency.
2020-03-30 Truelove et al COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond
medrxiv
IV. Other The primary aims of this analysis are to: 1) develop a baseline expectation of the possible infection burden, speed, and hospitalization capacity needed to respond to a COVID-19 epidemic; 2) use these findings to provide some recommendations to support ongoing preparedness planning by the Bangladesh government, United Nations agencies and other actors for a COVID-19 outbreak; and 3) apply lessons from this case study to refugees and other forcibly displaced persons globally.

Projections of the potential COVID-19 infection burden, epidemic speed, and healthcare needs in such settings are critical to inform preparedness planning.
2020-03-30 Einian et al Modeling of COVID-19 Pandemic and Scenarios for Containment
medrxiv
IV. Other In reality, the number of confirmed cases is a function of medical tests and the preparedness of the healthcare system.

As of now, many countries have been severely affected, partly because of slow responses to the crisis, ill-preparedness of their health system, and the fragile health infrastructure and the shortage of protective equipment.
2020-03-30 O’Connell et al Midwives in a pandemic: A call for solidarity and compassion
Women and Birth
IV. Prevalence Study COVID-19 has shown us (again) how the world, now more than ever, needs a robust proactive investment in public health infrastructures, for which midwives are key in reproductive health strategies globally.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Measures to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic are a focus of communities in countries, but preparedness plans should consider refugees and migrants and their needs.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study These recommendations concern knowledge and science provision in understanding disaster and health-related emergency risks, the extension of disaster risk governance to manage both disaster risks and potential health-emergencies, particularly for humanitarian coordination aspects; and the strengthening of community-level preparedness and response.
2020-04-30 Georgalakis et al A disconnected policy network: The UK's response to the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic
Social Science & Medicine
IV. Other Global health governance is increasingly focused on epidemic and pandemic health emergencies that require an interdisciplinary approach to accessing scientific knowledge to guide preparedness and crisis response.
2020-04-30 Kapata et al Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Increased governmental and donor investments are required to advance locally led, world-class public health work with surveillance, data and analytics capabilities and further expanding state-of-the-art laboratory capacities with more J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f trained personnel to sustain capacity to rapidly respond to outbreaks at their source.

7 Modes of communicating with target high-risk populations (elderly, health care workers).

7.0.0.1 Highlights

7.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Schwartz et al Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from (Wuhan) Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections
Viruses
IV. Prevalence Study

A case-control study to determine the effects of SARS on pregnancy compared 10 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women with the infection at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Hong Kong .
MERS prevention should be high priority for high-risk exposures such as healthcare workers, pregnant women and individuals working with camels, camel meat-milk processors and in abattoirs .
2020-02-03 Čivljak et al The third coronavirus epidemic in the third millennium: what’s next?
Croat Med J
IV. Prevalence Study

However, the largest study to date on more than 72 000 patients from China has shown that health care workers make up 3.8% of the patients.
Therefore, in addition to persons exposed to animal sources and infected family members, health care workers were among the most heavily exposed and vulnerable individuals .
2020-02-19 Klepac et al Contacts in context: large-scale setting-specific social mixing matrices from the BBC Pandemic project
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The main dataset used in this study consisted of 36,155 participants reporting 378,559 contacts.
For directly transmitted respiratory pathogens such as influenza, measles and coronaviruses, social mixing patterns shape the risk of individual-level infection and population-level transmission dynamics , as well as the effectiveness of control measures targeted at specific age groups .
2020-02-21 Cheng et al Scabies: Application of the Novel Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Detection and Management
West J Emerg Med
IV. Prevalence Study

36 Advising patients and parents of young patients to keep fingernails short and clean can assist with preventing secondary infections.
Populations at highest risk for scabies include children, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and people in congregate living conditions, including refugee camps.
2020-02-26 Rothan et al The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Other Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people.
2020-02-26 Haider et al Passengers' destinations from China: low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
Epidemiol Infect
IV. Prevalence Study Closure of certain routes, targeted airport screening, risk communication, public awareness and targeted training and vigilance of health workers associated with the portals of entry of visitors to their countries will help mitigate the force of further spread of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-29 Rodríguez-Morales et al Going global – Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Good risk communication from official organizations helps travel health providers communicate and navigate risk with their clients.
2020-03-04 Fan et al Prediction of Epidemic Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Driven by Spring Festival Transportation in China: A Population-Based Study
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Other Wuhan’s migrants have a large proportion of middle-aged and high-risk individuals.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Healthcare workers and elderly people had higher attack rates and severity risk increased with age.

Special efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations, including healthcare workers, elderly and children.

Therefore, special attention and efforts should be applied to protect and reduce transmission and progression in vulnerable populations including healthcare workers, elderly people and children.
2020-03-12 Prem et al The effect of control strategies that reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other Similar to a flu-like pathogen, the model suggests that interactions between school children and the older individuals in the population have important public health implications, as children may have high infection rates while the elderly are more vulnerable to severe infections with potentially fatal outcome.
2020-03-13 Qiao et al What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women?
The Lancet
IV. Other Therefore, pregnant women and newborn babies should be considered key atrisk populations in strategies focusing on prevention and management of COVID19 infection.
2020-03-13 Bhagavathula et al Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Knowledge and Perceptions: A Survey of Healthcare Workers
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 529 HCWs participated, 453 of whom completed the study questionnaire (85.6% response rate), including 234 (51.6%) men and 219 (48.3%) women; most of the participants were below 44 years of age (82.4%).
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the primary sector in contact with patients and are an important source of exposure to infected cases in healthcare settings; thus, HCWs are expected to be at high risk of infection.
2020-03-15 Li et al Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other Target populations are categorized in four levels: Level 1 population includes those who are most vulnerable to mental health problems, such as hospitalized patients with confirmed infection or severe physical condition, frontline health professionals and administrative staff.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
We also analyzed the characteristics of KAP towards COVID-19 and identified some demographic factors associated with KAP; these findings are useful for public health policy-makers and health workers to recognize target populations for COVID-19 prevention and health education.

As suggested by findings from previous studies regarding age and gender patterns of risk-taking behaviors , men and late adolescents are more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors.
2020-03-16 He et al Anesthetic Management of Patients Undergoing Aortic Dissection Repair With Suspected Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
IV. Other 6, 11, 15 These modalities of transmission pose a highexposure risk for healthcare providers in the operating room, especially anesthesiologists.
2020-03-16 Jain et al Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Results Of the 2259 studies identified, 42 were selected after title and abstract analysis, and 7 studies (including 1813 COVID−19 patients) were chosen for inclusion.
The Chinese may differ to other populations in terms of their health-seeking behaviour, symptom reporting, prevalence of different comorbidities, as well as their access to high quality health services.
2020-03-16 Ye et al Environmental contamination of the SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare premises: An urgent call for protection for healthcare workers
medrxiv
IV. Other In addition, pregnant women and neonates are highly susceptible populations.
2020-03-17 Handel et al If containment is not possible, how do we minimize mortality for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious disease outbreaks?
medrxiv
IV. Other Scenarios 3-5 show interventions that preferentially target children, adults, and elderly, respectively.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 16, 17, 22 This method includes scaling up public awareness of behaviours such as hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette, communicating and engaging with local communities about the risks of the outbreak, and putting in place effective public health response measures.
2020-03-18 He et al Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

A total of 414 throat swabs were collected from these 94 patients (median = 4 swabs per patient), from the day of illness onset up to 32 days after onset.
Preliminary indications of pre-symptomatic infectivity of COVID-19 cases has already prompted enhanced pre-emptive preventive measures in the nosocomial setting and in the community, especially for high risk groups such as older adults and those with pre-existing medical conditions.
2020-03-19 Cheng et al High transmissibility of COVID-19 near symptom onset
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

By February 26, there were 32 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients, including five household/family clusters and four asymptomatic patients.
For high-risk populations, including household and hospital contacts, RT-PCR was performed regardless of symptoms.
2020-03-20 Feng et al Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Other 9 Meanwhile, health authorities should optimise face mask distribution to prioritise the needs of frontline health-care workers and the most vulnerable populations in communities who are more susceptible to infection and mortality if infected, including older adults (particularly those older than 65 years) and people with underlying health conditions.
2020-03-21 DeCaprio et al Building a COVID-19 Vulnerability Index
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The risk of severe complications from COVID-19 is higher for certain vulnerable populations, particularly people who are elderly, frail, or have multiple chronic conditions.
2020-03-23 Lai et al Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019
JAMA Netw Open
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this survey of heath care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions in China, participants reported experiencing psychological burden, especially nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline health care workers directly engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and care for patients with COVID-19.
2020-03-23 Dashraath et al Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
IV. Other A serious public health emergency, it is particularly deadly in vulnerable populations and communities in which healthcare providers are insufficiently prepared to manage the infection.

Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks.
2020-03-24 Wood et al Precautions and Procedures for Coronary and Structural Cardiac Interventions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Guidance from Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology
Canadian Journal of Cardiology
IV. Other Recommendations also vary based on the likelihood of COVID-19 in the population in order to mitigate the risk of transmission to both Health Care Workers (HCW) and patients.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other Healthcare professionals across all settings are now caring for and communicating with patients in a context of high uncertainty.
2020-03-27 Joynt et al Understanding COVID-19: what does viral RNA load really mean?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Individuals within the community, policy makers, and frontline health-care providers, especially general and emergency room practitioners, should be alert and prepared to manage this risk.
2020-03-27 Liu et al Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients
Journal of Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

During the study period, a total of 56 patients were evaluated, 18 elderly patients (32.14%), and 38 young patients (67.86%).
4 The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of elderly and non-elderly (young and middle-aged) patients with COVID-19.
2020-03-27 Foddai et al Surveillance to improve evidence for community control decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic – Opening the animal epidemic toolbox for public health
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study The risk-based surveillance on high-risk individuals e.g.
2020-03-30 Kurita et al Estimation of protection for COVID-19 in children from epidemiological information and estimate effect of policy in Japan
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study contacting with other children was 15/19 of all contacts, with adults was 3/19, and with elderly people was 1/19; the share of adult contacting with children was 3/9 of all contacts, with other adults was 5/9, and with elderly people was 1/9; the share of elderly people contacting with children was 1/7, with adults was 2/7, and with other elderly people was 4/7.

The contact patterns among children, adults, and elderly people were estimated in an earlier study .
2020-03-30 Gupta et al Trend Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak in India
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The risk of severe complications from COVID-19 is higher for certain vulnerable populations, particularly people who are elderly, frail, or have multiple chronic conditions.
2020-03-30 Wang et al Dementia care during COVID-19
The Lancet
IV. Other For example, mental health professionals, social workers, nursing home administrators, and volunteers should deliver mental health care for people living with dementia collaboratively.
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other Health professionals, especially those working in hospitals caring for people with confirmed or suspected 2019-nCoV pneumonia, are vulnerable to both high risk of infection and mental health problems.

6 Despite the common mental health problems and disorders found among patients and health workers in such settings, most health professionals working in isolation units and hospitals do not receive any training in providing mental health care.
2020-03-31 Liu et al Pay attention to situation of SARS-CoV-2 and TCM advantages in treatment of novel coronavirus infection
Chinese Herbal Medicines
IV. Prevalence Study

In clinical study, two mild and two severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients were given combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment, three of whom gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms.
From the above data, it can be seen that the elderly infected persons are the main risk groups.
2020-03-31 Udwadia et al How to protect the protectors: 10 lessons to learn for doctors fighting the COVID-19 Coronavirus
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
II. Randomized Controlled Trial From the very start of the epidemic it has been recognised that HCWs (health care workers) managing this potentially lethal airborne disease are a uniquely high-risk group.
2020-03-31 Berghella et al NOW!: Protection for Obstetrical providers and Patients
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM
IV. Other Healthcare workers, including in obstetric physicians, mid-wives, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses and others, are one of the populations at highest risk of contracting the disease, and dying from it.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
27 Among 493 health care workers caring for hospitalized patients, 10/493 health care workers became infected with COVID-19; all 10 were unprotected health care workers (no mask) caring for patients on medical wards with a low risk of exposure (no known or suspected COVID-19 patients).

The data revealed a higher risk of viral transmission to health care workers exposed to aerosol generating procedures compared to unexposed health care workers (RR = 4.66; 95% CI: 3.13-6.94).
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Public health management of MERS involved infection control strategies for hospitalized patients and healthcare professionals.
2020-04-30 Jiang et al Psychological crisis intervention during the outbreak period of new coronavirus pneumonia from experience in Shanghai
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Due to different populations being affected by the epidemic to different degrees, the psychiatrists identified high-risk populations on which to prioritize their efforts, in order to prevent extreme events such as suicide and impulsive behavior.
2020-05-31 Lima et al The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease)
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Results: : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

Results : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

8 Risk communication and guidelines that are easy to understand and follow (include targeting at risk populations’ families too).

8.0.0.1 Highlights

8.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 WANG et al Expert recommendations for diabetes with or without COVID-19 management in communities
Chinese Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
IV. Other The main contents include basic requirements for management, workflow of health management, referral, treatment, and long-term follow-up.
2020-02-23 Ge et al Assessing the impact of a symptom-based mass screening and testing intervention during a novel infectious disease outbreak: The case of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other Staff at those sites can be trained to follow protocols that reduce transmission risk.
2020-02-23 Zhai et al From Isolation to Coordination: How Can Telemedicine Help Combat the COVID-19 Outbreak?
medrxiv
IV. Other As such, frequent, timely, accurate, and problem-solving focused communication among clinical staffs from hospitals at different levels in the healthcare system is essential to minimize the risk incurred in handling patients with possible COVID-19 infection 3 .
2020-02-23 Lu et al A descriptive study of the impact of diseases control and prevention on the epidemics dynamics and clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Shanghai, lessons learned for metropolis epidemics prevention
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The study was approved by SHPHC ethics committee and oral consent was obtained from 110 patients.
As follow-up continues, we can observe the outcome 345 of more and more patients, and it should be possible to identify early risk factors that 346 indicate a poor prognosis.
2020-02-26 Haider et al Passengers' destinations from China: low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
Epidemiol Infect
IV. Prevalence Study Closure of certain routes, targeted airport screening, risk communication, public awareness and targeted training and vigilance of health workers associated with the portals of entry of visitors to their countries will help mitigate the force of further spread of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-28 Heymann et al COVID-19: what is next for public health?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

8 Infected individuals produce a large quantity of virus in the upper respiratory tract during a prodrome period, are mobile, and carry on usual activities, contributing to the spread of infection.
Second, continued evolution is needed of enhanced communi cation strategies that provide general populations and vulnerable populations most at risk with actionable information for self-protection, including identification of symptoms, and clear guidance for treatment seeking.
2020-02-29 Rodríguez-Morales et al Going global – Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Good risk communication from official organizations helps travel health providers communicate and navigate risk with their clients.

Good risk communication allows people to know from trusted sources in real-time the risks they may face, and any protective measures they can take to help minimise this.
2020-03-02 Zhu et al The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China
Glob Health Res Policy
IV. Prevalence Study Inhabitants are not allowed to go out of their communities and they are very supportive to this regulation.
2020-03-03 Long et al Forecasting the Cumulative Number of COVID-19 Deaths in China: a Boltzmann Function-based Modeling Study
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The results may help to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 outbreaks and facilitate timely mental service for the families of passed patients.
2020-03-04 Fan et al Prediction of Epidemic Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Driven by Spring Festival Transportation in China: A Population-Based Study
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Other Their social characteristics include nuclear family migration (84%), migration with families of 3–4 members (71%), a rural household registration (85%), and working or doing business (84%) as the main reason for migration.
2020-03-06 Rudman et al Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 — United States, January–February 2020
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
IV. Other The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.
2020-03-06 Al-Tawfiq et al Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection based on CT scan vs. RT-PCR: Reflecting on Experience from MERS-CoV
Journal of Hospital Infection
IV. Other For hospitalized patients diagnostic algorithms based on a combination of RT-PCR and CT scan of the chest may prove to be necessary in order to ensure accurate detection of cases and to facilitate infection prevention measures.
2020-03-09 Leng et al Transplantation of ACE2(-) Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves the Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
Aging Dis
IV. Other The doctors informed the patient's families of a critical condition.
2020-03-10 Gao et al The epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Jingmen,Hubei,China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Findings: Of the 213 cases (108 men and 105 women) , 88 (41%) had exposure to Wuhan.
If more information was needed, we communicated with attending health care providers, patients, and their families.
2020-03-10 Barra et al Analytical sensibility and specificity of two RT-qPCR protocols for SARS-CoV-2 detection performed in an automated workflow
medrxiv
IV. Other Primers/probe concentrations suggested by the interim RT-qPCR protocols providers were maintained and other concentrations were also tested (table 1).
2020-03-11 Won et al Development of a Laboratory-safe and Low-cost Detection Protocol for SARS-CoV-2 of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Experimental Neurobiology
IV. Other Therefore, a low-cost, easy-access protocol for early detection of this virus is desperately needed.
2020-03-11 Mao et al Implications of COVID-19 for patients with pre-existing digestive diseases
The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology
IV. Other These data and experience with guidance on how to manage patients with underlining comorbidities in China could facilitate integrated care for patients globally.
2020-03-13 Dosa et al Long-Term Care Facilities and the Coronavirus Epidemic: Practical Guidelines for a Population at Highest Risk
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
IV. Other Appropriate preparedness includes 5 key elements: 1) reduce morbidity and mortality among those infected; 2) minimize transmission; 3) ensure protection of health care workers; 4) maintain health care system functioning; and 5) maintain communication with worried residents and family members.

Until then, training staff and visitors on how to minimize their risk for picking up virus in the community and the facility and transmitting it to others will remain our most important tools.
2020-03-16 He et al Anesthetic Management of Patients Undergoing Aortic Dissection Repair With Suspected Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
IV. Other 6, 11, 15 These modalities of transmission pose a highexposure risk for healthcare providers in the operating room, especially anesthesiologists.
2020-03-16 Jain et al Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Results Of the 2259 studies identified, 42 were selected after title and abstract analysis, and 7 studies (including 1813 COVID−19 patients) were chosen for inclusion.
This will aid clinical assessment, risk stratification, and resource allocation, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at the most vulnerable.
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Clinical Characteristics of 34 Children with Coronavirus Disease-2019 in the West of China: a Multiple-center Case Series
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

In this case series, data from 34 paediatric patients with COVID-19 were analyzed, including 14 male patients (41.18%) and 20 female patients (58.82%).
Close dynamic monitoring for families with adult patients would contribute to early identification for paediatric patients.
2020-03-17 Ying et al Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Of the 882 participants who were recruited in this study, 845 completed the questionnaires correctly (response rate of 95.80% ).
Thus, it is easy to understand that family members (that is, HCWs) directly contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients was associated with higher risk for GAD among participants, because they excessively concerned that their families might be infected or even die.
2020-03-17 Bedford et al COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Activities to accomplish these goals vary and are based on national risk assessments that many times include estimated numbers of patients requiring hospitalisation and availability of hospital beds and ventilation support.
2020-03-18 Sun et al Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province
Ann Intensive Care
IV. Other Since the severity of disease is closely related to the prognosis, the basic and essential strategies to improve outcomes that we should adhere to remain the early detection of high-risk and critically ill patients .
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
The ability to communicate with one's family and friends is also essential.
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Examples include rescheduling preventive and routine patient follow-up visits and eliminating nonessential administrative tasks.
2020-03-23 Gloeckner et al Now-casting the COVID-19 epidemic: The use case of Japan, March 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study This approach also visualizes easily the level of uncertainty with this regard and therefore facilitates transparent public health risk communication.
2020-03-24 Hoe GAN et al Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Safety and Health at Work
IV. Other Policies and infrastructure to support clear and timely communications will facilitate effective cascading of information to frontline staff, enabling their work and facilitating their interactions with the public .
2020-03-24 Emami et al Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Arch Acad Emerg Med
I. Systematic Review

RESULTS: The data of 76993 patients presented in 10 articles were included in this study.
Another very important advice to patients with underlying diseases during the epidemics like the one caused by the novel virus is to follow guidance on travel restrictions.

In addition, to reduce the morbidity and complications of COVID-19 in different populations, especially patients with the mentioned underlying diseases, we recommend clinicians and policymakers to launch diagnostic procedures for such individuals first so that proper treatments can be designed and followed to ensure they are protected within epidemic regions .
2020-03-24 Baker et al Characterizing occupations that cannot work from home: a means to identify susceptible worker groups during the COVID-19 pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Other Characterizing which occupational groups are least likely to be able to work from home can inform public health risk management and prioritize occupational sectors where additional workplace protections are necessary.
2020-03-24 Luo et al Management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Further research is needed to assess the risk and to produce guidelines for delivery times and methods in patients with COVID-19.
2020-03-25 Ren et al EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS DURING THE 2019 CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK IN WUHAN, CHINA: A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY REPORT
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
IV. Prevalence Study

There are 63 men and 24 women, average age is 51±12 years, 80 (92.0%) of them lived together with relatives, the number of relatives ranged from 1 to 8.
96.6% of the families and communities undertook prevention and quarantine procedures.
2020-03-25 Bansal et al Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews
IV. Prevalence Study

A study describing clinical profile and outcomes in 138 Chinese patients with COVID-19 reported 16.7% incidence of arrhythmia .
Rapid triaging and management of these patients is crucial, not only to allow efficient utilization of healthcare resources but also to minimize exposure to caregivers.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
During outbreaks, information and education should be provided for residents and their families, and should include their specific condition, and practices necessary to reduce the risk of infection.

Inform regular visitors and families of residents and of the outbreak of influenza and request they only undertake essential visits; discourage unnecessary visitors.
2020-03-27 Powell et al What Should Palliative Care’s Response be to the COVID-19 Epidemic?
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other Caregivers should be educated about how to avoid acquiring COVID-19 themselves, 114 and how to best utilize their social network to limit the number of other people exposed.
2020-03-27 Rivera et al The Impact of COVID-19 on Radiation Oncology Clinics and Cancer Patients in the U.S.
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other High-risk patients should be treated at times that facilitate appropriate sterilization and minimize staff and patient exposure.
2020-03-30 Xie et al Development and external validation of a prognostic multivariable model on admission for hospitalized patients with COVID-19
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

Second cohort of 151 patients admitted to Jinyintan hospital who were included in a previous study were reused for model validation.
This model can therefore be used in current pandemic regions to identify patients who are at risk of severe disease at an early enough stage to initialize intensive supportive treatment and to guide discussions between clinicians, patients and families.

After further external validation in different countries the model will enable better risk stratification and more targeted management of patients with COVID-19.
2020-03-30 Dy et al A COVID-19 Infection Risk Model for Frontline Health Care Workers
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

A doctor doing brief rounds on 10 patients (where each patient is looked upon in at most 30 seconds) or the situation of having 5 patients per minute are equivalent to 10 encounters.
The overall risk score can be used to compare practices.
2020-03-31 Weaver et al Applying Palliative Care Principles to Communicate with Children about COVID-19
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other Palliative care teams may consider expanding their communication training and skillsets to help families consider caring ways to communicate with their children and grandchildren about the coronavirus.

Family caregivers may consider helping children create lists for spacing out family purchases to foster a sense of being planful over panic.
2020-03-31 Tuech et al Strategy for the practice of digestive and oncological surgery during the Covid-19 epidemic
Journal of Visceral Surgery
IV. Prevalence Study

This prospective trial included 1421 patients, and mortality at 3 months was 6.3%.
It is important to clearly inform patients and their families that visits are not allowed.
2020-03-31 Elwood et al SOGC Committee Opinion – COVID-19 in Pregnancy
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
IV. Other Pregnant women and their loved ones will be looking to maternal care providers for information and guidance on how to prevent or manage infection with COVID-19.
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other A family viewing area should be facilitated especially if bodies will remain for a certain period of time, or because in line with mitigation of social contact, only few relatives will be permitted access to facilities to complete the required documentation for burial, it is important to allocate an appropriate and comfortable waiting areas for families, following also general recommendations for public spaces in the framework of the pandemic.
2020-04-01 Chen et al Novel Coronavirus International Public Health Emergency: Guidance on Radiation Oncology Facility Operation
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other 19 All medical staff receive training regarding the appropriate protocols and procedures to follow if patients have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 or if they have fever.
2020-05-31 Coles et al International Guidelines on Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Clinical Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study We suggest that the following guidelines are considered and the risks and benefits are discussed with patients to facilitate shared decision-making.

9 Communication that indicates potential risk of disease to all population groups.

9.0.0.1 Highlights

9.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 ZHAO et al Clinical characteristics of 28 patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia
Chinese Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other There were four groups of family clusters.
2020-01-24 Zhao et al Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak
biorxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis The likelihood of travel related risks of disease spreading is suggested by , which indicates the potentials of regional and global spread .
2020-02-02 Jung et al Real time estimation of the risk of death from novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection: Inference using exported cases
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

As of 24 January 2020, with 23 exported cases, and estimating the growth rate from 8 December 2019 (scenario 1) and using the data since growth of exported cases (scenario 2), the cumulative incidence in China was estimated at 5433 cases (95% confidence interval (CI): 3883, 7160) and 17780 cases (95% CI: 9646, 28724), respectively.
In addition to quantifying the overall risk of death, future research must identify groups at risk of death (e.g., the elderly and people with underlying comorbidities) .
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation.
2020-02-11 Cai et al Bulk and single-cell transcriptomics identify tobacco-use disparity in lung gene expression of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCov
medrxiv
IV. Other 1, 2 We believe that the susceptibility to the novel 2019-nCov is also different among population groups.
2020-02-11 Thompson et al Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in Wuhan, China, 2020: Intense Surveillance Is Vital for Preventing Sustained Transmission in New Locations
J Clin Med
IV. Prevalence Study

Data describing the times from symptom onset to hospitalisation for 47 patients infected early in the current outbreak are used to generate an estimate for the probability that an imported case is followed by sustained human-to-human transmission.
One example might be to consider spatial variation in host population densities and surveillance levels, leading to spatially inhomogeneous outbreak risks.
2020-02-14 Jung et al Real-Time Estimation of the Risk of Death from Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection: Inference Using Exported Cases
J Clin Med
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Our data include 51 cases diagnosed outside China who had illness onset through 24 January and were reported by 9 February 2020 and the dates of illness onset and death among 41 deceased cases in China.
In addition to quantifying the overall risk of death, future research must identify groups at risk of death (e.g., the elderly and people with underlying comorbidities) .
2020-02-20 Shi et al SEIR Transmission dynamics model of 2019 nCoV coronavirus with considering the weak infectious ability and changes in latency duration
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The transformation relationship among different groups of people is shown in Fig.
2020-02-24 Shi et al Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

Four patterns of evolution throughout the series of CT scans were observed among these 57 patients: initial progression to peak level, followed by radiographic improvement (type 1), seen in 26 (46%) patients (figure 6), of whom 24 (92%) patients were discharged from hospital (median stay 25 days [IQR 20-27]); radiographic deterioration (type 2), seen in 18 (32%) patients (figure 5), of whom two (11%) died (patients 2 and 3); radiographic improvement (type 3), seen in eight (14%) patients, of whom five (63%) were discharged from hospital (median stay 19 days ; and unchanged radiographic appearance (type 4), seen in five (9%) patients, all of whom were still in hospital at the cutoff date (Feb 8).
Other laboratory findings did not significantly differ among groups, and the prevalence of underlying diseases was similar in all groups.
2020-03-03 Liu et al Association of Cardiovascular Manifestations with In-hospital Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Hospital Staff Data
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Liu et al analyzed 137 cases with COVID-19 and found that patients who complains palpitation as initial symptom accounted for 7.3% .
The population was presented with a mean age of 39.1 +- 9.2 and less comorbidities than community population.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Significant differences were found between age groups, and the oldest women were identified as an at-risk population due to limitations in their coping strategies and SOC.
2020-03-06 Baker et al Estimating the burden of United States workers exposed to infection or disease: a key factor in containing risk of COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
IV. Other Understanding which occupational groups are exposed to infection and disease in the workplace can help to inform public health risk response and management for COVID-19, and subsequent infectious disease outbreaks.
2020-03-06 Kraemer et al The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Age and sex distributions are important in understanding risk of infection across populations.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study The authors also pointed out the lack of understanding of psychosocial health risk profiling in population subgroups.
2020-03-10 Zhan et al Prediction of COVID-19 Spreading Profiles in South Korea, Italy and Iran by Data-Driven Coding
medrxiv
IV. Other While two different cities may have different population size and percentage of eventual infected population, the rates of infection and recovery should be similar across a group of cities, i.e., µ i ≈ µ j .
2020-03-10 Xu et al Clinical Characteristics of Two Human to Human Transmitted Coronaviruses: Corona Virus Disease 2019 versus Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Among thirty-two included studies, four studies obtained 6 points of NOS , and remaining twenty-eight studies obtained 7 points of NOS or more [8-25, 27, 29-31, 33-34, 36-39] .
The NOS includes three parts for risk of bias, with nine points in total: selection of research groups (four points); inter-group comparability (two points); and ascertainment of exposure and outcomes (three points) for case-control and cohort studies, respectively.
2020-03-11 Chopra et al How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other A designated communication team that is integrated into the work so they have a strong understanding of the clinical care being provided and the communication needs of the workforce, patients, and public is recommended.
2020-03-11 McBryde et al The value of early transmission dynamic studies in emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Additionally, the infection severity, including the infection-fatality rate across different ages and risk groups, must be established.
2020-03-12 Yang et al Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
I. Systematic Review

Results Eight studies were included in the meta- analysis, including 46248 infected patients.
These results suggest that age and comorbidities may be risk factors for critical patients.
2020-03-13 Li et al Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia: a case-control study
medrxiv
IV. Other Demographic characteristics of two case groups and two control groups are shown in Table 1 .
2020-03-14 Fung et al A tug-of-war between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and host antiviral defence: lessons from other pathogenic viruses
Emerg Microbes Infect
IV. Prevalence Study

Groups N and P were identified in 13 and 2 individuals, respectively.
Groups N and P were identified in 13 and 2 individuals, respectively.
2020-03-16 Wang et al Strongly heterogeneous transmission of COVID-19 in mainland China: local and regional variation
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

For early transmission in Wuhan, any infectious case produced as many as four new cases, transmission outside Wuhan was less intense, with reproduction numbers below two.
Similarly, estimates of transmission from different age groups showed that small children and elderly people were equally likely to transmit infection as any other age group ( Figure A3 ).
2020-03-17 Handel et al If containment is not possible, how do we minimize mortality for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious disease outbreaks?
medrxiv
IV. Other Three age groups, children, adults, and elderly are considered, and interventions that reduce the risk of infection for each age group are implemented.

If an intervention mainly protects specific groups in a population, infections required to achieve population immunity will happen disproportionately in the other groups.
2020-03-18 Sun et al Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province
Ann Intensive Care
IV. Other This kind of regional responsibility, timely feedback communication management makes it possible for effective medical interventions (Fig.
2020-03-20 Williams et al Estimating the Risks from COVID-19 Infection in Adult Chemotherapy Patients
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study While we can assume that the risk of infection in patients is the same as the expected population-level infection rate, population level infection may take many months to occur.
2020-03-21 Liu et al Clinical and CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia: Focus on pregnant women and children
Journal of Infection
IV. Other The populations without SARS-CoV-2 positive were categorized into the clinically-diagnosed group.
2020-03-23 Brooks-Pollock et al The Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of cases due to gatherings and groups with relevance to COVID-19 mitigation strategies
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The Social Contact Survey (SCS) collected data on social contacts from 5,388 participants between 2009 and 2010 in the UK.
The majority of groups reported (3,860; 76%) were groups of people who knew each other.
2020-03-23 Gloeckner et al Now-casting the COVID-19 epidemic: The use case of Japan, March 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study This approach also visualizes easily the level of uncertainty with this regard and therefore facilitates transparent public health risk communication.
2020-03-24 Wang et al Tracking and forecasting milepost moments of the epidemic in the early-outbreak: framework and applications to the COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model It is obvious that the contagion process of an unknown virus in different regions would be diverse with respect to the number of patients and the growth pattern of epidemic, because of population density, population mobility, public health conditions, disease prevention and control measures.
2020-03-27 Davies et al Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model / overall burden in the groups at risk of severe disease, primarily older populations for COVID-19 21 , remains high.
2020-03-27 Ghaffarzadegan et al Simulation-based Estimation of the Spread of COVID-19 in Iran
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

In the most optimistic scenario for seasonal effects, depending on policy measures, 1.6 million Iranians (90% CI: 0.9M-2.6M) are likely to get infected, and death toll will reach about 58,000 cases (90% CI: 32K-97K), while in the more pessimistic scenarios, death toll may exceed 103,000 cases (90% CI: 56K-172K).
The model is very simple on other fronts: it assumes perfect mixing for the whole population of Iran and includes no disaggregation of population into different groups, nor any travel patterns across population groups.
2020-03-27 Sun et al Acute gastrointestinal injury in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Results: From February 10 to March 10 2020, 83 critically ill patients of 1314 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled.
Significant differences in 28-day mortality were found among the four groups (P <0.05) except for group AGI grade I and II (P =0.540).

No differences in BMI were found among the four groups (P >0.05).
2020-03-27 Yeo et al A Computational Model for Estimating the Progression of COVID-19 Cases in the US West and East Coasts
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model These outcomes are represented by the populations R and D above, with .
2020-03-27 Lou et al Serology characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection since the exposure and post symptoms onset
medrxiv
IV. Other There was no significant difference on age, viral load in the early stage of illness and the risk of critical status between the groups.
2020-03-29 Alfano et al Non-invasive surveys of mammalian viruses using environmental DNA
biorxiv
IV. Other Samples were pooled in groups of two.
2020-03-30 Wang et al Genetic Profiles in Pharmacogenes Indicate Personalized Drug Therapy for COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

As many as 16 clinical trials related to chloroquine, and two clinical trials for mild and common patients and severe patients will be completed on April 30, 2020 (ChiCTR2000029898, ChiCTR2000029899), each clinical trial includes a total of 100 participants.
Due to the activity difference exists among populations, the genotypes of important alleles in CYP450 family should be detected after diagnosis, then treatment strategies for these drugs can be suggested in these patients.
2020-03-30 Huynh et al The more I fear about COVID-19, the more I wear medical masks: A survey on risk perception and medical masks uses
medrxiv
IV. Other Additionally, there is a difference in risk perception between two groups before COVID-19 outbreak.
2020-03-30 Liu et al Diagnostic Indexes of a Rapid IgG/IgM Combined Antibody Test for SARS-CoV-2
medrxiv
IV. Other PCR positive group was further divided into two subgroups: mild/common and severe/critical subgroup while PCR negative group was further divided into three subgroups: clinical confirmed, suspected cases and other disease subgroups ( Table 2) .
2020-03-31 Liu et al Pay attention to situation of SARS-CoV-2 and TCM advantages in treatment of novel coronavirus infection
Chinese Herbal Medicines
IV. Prevalence Study

In clinical study, two mild and two severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients were given combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment, three of whom gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms.
From the above data, it can be seen that the elderly infected persons are the main risk groups.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Evidence shows that this vulnerable population has a low risk of transmitting communicable diseases to host populations in general.
2020-03-31 Goh et al Shell disorder analysis predicts greater resilience of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outside the body and in body fluids
Microbial Pathogenesis
IV. Other Categories were assigned the values of 1, 2 and 3 to the three groups as according to the level of respiratory transmission potential.
2020-03-31 Abduljali et al Epidemiology, genome and clinical features of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2: a recent view
New Microbes and New Infections
IV. Other Children are population least affected by the disease, while the highest rate of death is among the elderly and people with comorbidities.
2020-03-31 Amariles et al COVID-19 in Colombia endpoints. Are we different, like Europe?
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other 1, 2 According with the Knowledge of this infection so far, the high-risk age groups are among the people over 60 years of age, primarily due to the burden of disease and the complications that this infection generates in them.
2020-03-31 Spychalski et al Estimating case fatality rates of COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other CFRs in these subgroups are 0%, 0%, and 49%, respectively.
2020-04-01 Chen et al Novel Coronavirus International Public Health Emergency: Guidance on Radiation Oncology Facility Operation
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other Level 1 indicates high risk level is for the "contaminated" zone; level 2 indicates medium risk level is for "semi-contaminated" zone, and level 3 indicates low risk one for the "clean" zone.

The risk of personnel cross-infection is divided into three levels of risk.
2020-05-31 Chen et al High-resolution computed tomography manifestations of COVID-19 infections in patients of different ages
European Journal of Radiology
IV. Prevalence Study

In this study, we analyzed the HRCT lung manifestations and related signs in 98 patients of different ages.
The density characteristics of the lesions were not significantly different between groups A and B, and between groups C and D (P > 0.05).
2020-06-30 Liu et al Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020
Clinica Chimica Acta
IV. Prevalence Study Groups based on age: 18-29 (n=482), 30-39 (n=1097), 40-49 (n=841), 50-59 (n=1011), 60-69 (n=886), >70 (n=563).

10 Misunderstanding around containment and mitigation.

10.0.0.1 Highlights

10.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020-01-31 Kruse et al Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
F1000Research
IV. Other Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals.
2020-02-03 Čivljak et al The third coronavirus epidemic in the third millennium: what’s next?
Croat Med J
IV. Prevalence Study

However, the largest study to date on more than 72 000 patients from China has shown that health care workers make up 3.8% of the patients.
The spread of the epidemic can only be contained and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospitals by strict compliance with infection prevention and control measures (contact, droplet, and airborne precautions) .
2020-02-04 Long et al The Role of Augmented Intelligence (AI) in Detecting and Preventing the Spread of Novel Coronavirus
J Med Syst
IV. Other And, early detection of geographical containment in certain regions that outpace modeled expectations may reveal more effective techniques for containment through near real-time detection of differences in practice.
2020-02-05 Lai et al Assessing spread risk of Wuhan novel coronavirus within and beyond China, January-April 2020: a travel network-based modelling study
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

A total of 164 cases with available data as of January 25th, 2020, were included.
Thus, all countries should be prepared for containment, including active surveillance, early detection, isolation and case management, contact tracing and prevention of onward spread of the 2019-nCoV infection .
2020-02-07 Kruse et al Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
F1000Res
IV. Prevalence Study

Like some of the therapeutic options discussed below, the ability to express any lead candidates in lower organisms for protein expression (bacteria, yeast, insect cells) would facilitate faster production of therapy for patients 19 .
Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals.
2020-02-13 Clifford et al Interventions targeting air travellers early in the pandemic may delay local outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2
medrxiv
IV. Other If containment is impossible, another key target of the pandemic response is to delay local spread .
2020-02-20 Maier et al Effective containment explains sub-exponential growth in confirmed cases of recent COVID-19 outbreak in Mainland China
medrxiv
IV. Other The Chinese government put several mitigation policies in place to contain the spread of the epidemic.
2020-02-23 Hou et al Public Exposure to Live Animals, Behavioural Change, and Support in Containment Measures in response to COVID-19 Outbreak: a population-based cross sectional survey in China
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Another commentary briefly introduced isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment as public health measures in the outbreak.

Most respondents supported governmental containment measures implemented, and three in four had confidence on the effectiveness of these measures.
2020-02-24 El Zowalaty et al From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study

However, it was recently reported that the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention isolated SARS-CoV-2 from 33 samples out of 585 environmental samples collected from Huanan Seafood Market .
The success in the containment of the current COVID-19 outbreak in China, affected countries, and the sporadic travel related cases worldwide will depend much on conventional public health measures, rapid clinical case identification, contact investigation, strict infection control in healthcare facilities, patient isolation, public education and community containment (quarantine) .
2020-03-05 Wilder-Smith et al Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

On Feb 18, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published their data of the first 72 314 patients including 44 672 patients with confirmed COVID19.
Because of the extent of community spread, traditional public health measures might not be able to halt all human-to-human transmission, and we need to consider moving from containment to mitigation.

Countries have to face the reality that individualcase containment might not be possible in the long run, and there might be the need to move from containment to mitigation, balancing the costs and benefits of public health measures.
2020-03-09 Ebrahim et al COVID-19 – the role of mass gatherings
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Therefore, mitigation of its impact, rather than containment and control becomes a priority during pandemics.
2020-03-13 Liu et al Modeling the situation of COVID-19 and effects of different containment strategies in China with dynamic differential equations and parameters estimation
medrxiv
IV. Other After the outbreak, local governments have adopted a series of unprecedented mitigation policies in place to contain the spread of the epidemic.
2020-03-13 Zhang et al Prediction of the COVID-19 outbreak based on a realistic stochastic model
medrxiv
IV. Other The containment time of the outbreak for different regions are predicted.
2020-03-15 Li et al Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other Further, strict quarantine and mandatory contact tracing policy by health authorities could cause societal rejection, financial loss, discrimination, and stigmatization .
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
These strict preventive practices could be primarily attributed to the very strict prevention and control measures implemented by local governments such as banning public gatherings.
2020-03-16 Teslya et al Impact of self-imposed prevention measures and short-term government intervention on mitigating and delaying a COVID-19 epidemic
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model For many countries around the world, the focus of public health officers in the context of COVID-19 epidemic has 256 shifted from containment to mitigation and delay.
2020-03-16 Jain et al Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Results Of the 2259 studies identified, 42 were selected after title and abstract analysis, and 7 studies (including 1813 COVID−19 patients) were chosen for inclusion.
As the virus spreads globally it is likely that government strategies will shift from containment and delay towards mitigation .
2020-03-16 Hu et al Evaluating the effect of public health intervention on the global-wide spread trajectory of Covid-19
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Table 2 showed the forecasted results of COVID-19 in 30 countries and world wide under immediate active intervention such as restrict social interaction, community mitigation measures and quarantine (Scenario 1).
2020-03-17 Kinner et al Prisons and custodial settings are part of a comprehensive response to COVID-19
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Isolation was central to containment.
2020-03-17 Kochanczyk et al Impact of the contact and exclusion rates on the spread of COVID-19 pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Other Either a decrease of the contact rate r C or increase of the exclusion rate r E may result in reduction of β below 1 and containment of the epidemic.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Infection prevention and control at the community and healthcare facility level is key for prevention, control and containment of the infection.
2020-03-18 Choe et al Are We Ready for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Arriving at Schools?
J Korean Med Sci
IV. Other Opening of schools is also expected to increase contact rates in the community, decreasing the effectiveness of social distancing, which is the mainstay of the current mitigation strategy.
2020-03-19 Arshad Ali et al The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—An emerging global health threat
Journal of Infection and Public Health
III-3. Time Series Analysis

In 2002, a pandemic of SARS occurred endangering the lives of 8098 individuals with a mortality of 774 patients .
The human-to-human airborne transmission was perceived, and the pandemic was culminated by employing strict public health measures .
2020-03-23 Arenas et al A mathematical model for the spatiotemporal epidemic spreading of COVID19
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Our results reveal that, at the current stage of the epidemics, the application of stricter containment measures of social distance are urgent to avoid the collapse of the health system.
2020-03-23 Milne et al The Effectiveness of Social Distancing in Mitigating COVID-19 Spread: a modelling analysis
medrxiv
IV. Other With an activation delay of up to six weeks from arrival of the first infectious cases into the modelled community, the continued use of all four social distancing interventions with 90% workplace non-attendance and a 70% reduction in community-wide contact resulted in a reduction of the infection rate from 66% to less than 1%, see Table 2 .
2020-03-23 Wang et al Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of public health measures to control COVID-19: a modelling study
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The most protective single strategy was community containment, which avoided one more case than the isolation-and-quarantine at the additional US$549 186.
2020-03-23 Koo et al Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

20 Asymptomatic individuals were able to infect at a 50% reduced rate compared with their symptomatic counterparts based on estimates from Nishiura and colleagues.
In the event that local containment is unsuccessful, our findings suggest that national outbreak control is feasible provided that R 0 is low (≤15), with a combination of the proposed inter vention measures (quarantine, school closure, and workplace distancing) being most effective.
2020-03-24 Portnoy et al Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
IV. Other Without proper containment measures, the fear is that hospitals will be overrun with COVID-19 cases.
2020-03-24 Maslov et al Window of Opportunity for Mitigation to Prevent Overflow of ICU capacity in Chicago by COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The earlier the strong mitigation is implemented, the greater the probability that it will be successful.
2020-03-27 Supino et al World governments should protect their population from COVID-19 pandemic using Italy and Lombardy as precursor
medrxiv
IV. Other To avoid the saturation of the ICUs, governments need to impose strong containment measures, such as lockdown of the population.
2020-03-28 Zhai et al The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
III-2. Matched Case Control

Another study later using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases had a similar mean incubation period, which was 6.4 days (95% CI: 5.6-7.7) .
Classical public health measures, including isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment can be used to curb the pandemic of this respiratory disease .
2020-03-30 Kurita et al Estimation of protection for COVID-19 in children from epidemiological information and estimate effect of policy in Japan
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study From 2 March, all schools were closed down as social mitigation for COVID-19.
2020-03-30 Cheng et al China's fight against COVID-19: What we have done and what we should do next?
medrxiv
IV. Other In other provinces, the focus is on the prevention of importation, containment of disease transmission and implementation of joint prevention and control measures.
2020-03-30 Jenny et al Dynamic Modeling to Identify Mitigation Strategies for Covid-19 Pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study As the number of infected people increases in a community, public health policies move away from containment of the outbreak to mitigation strategies such as social distancing and isolation, with considerable detrimental effects on public life and the economy.

The first mitigation strategy tested with our model is social distancing.

Relevant pandemic-spread scenario simulations provide guiding principles for containment and mitigation policy developments.
2020-03-30 Wang et al The experience of high-flow nasal cannula in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in two hospitals of Chongqing, China
Ann Intensive Care
IV. Other So, avoidance or reduction of condensation was very important when the HFNC was used.
2020-03-30 Bock et al Mitigation and herd immunity strategy for COVID-19 is likely to fail
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The time till hospitalisation from the onset of symptoms is assumed to be Gamma distributed with median 1.67 and variance 7.424 [gamma parameters: shape=0.874, loc=0.0, scale=2.915] 10 Patients with non severe progression eventually stay at home and the time from onset of symptoms till staying at home is also assumed to be Gamma distributed with median 2.31. and variance 8.365 [gamma parameters: shape=0.497, loc=0.0, scale=3.923] 11 .
Table 2 shows the intervals of R min ≤ R * ≤ R max which contain the inteval in which a successful overcritical mitigation is possible for both countries 6 .

As can be seen from the values in Table 2 , all intervals for a successful mitigation are small, which is below 0.11 in units of R * .
2020-03-30 Einian et al Modeling of COVID-19 Pandemic and Scenarios for Containment
medrxiv
IV. Other This policy would shift individuals from I group to Q group, enforcing better implementation of precautionary measures and control of contagion.
2020-03-30 Lopez et al A modified SEIR model to predict the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain: simulating control scenarios and multi-scale epidemics
medrxiv
IV. Other A decrease to around 200, 000 infected is achieved and a reduction to below 50, 000 deaths.
2020-03-30 Zhou et al Forecasting the Worldwide Spread of COVID-19 based on Logistic Model and SEIR Model
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Therefore, implementing strong containment policies during the early spreading stages of COVID-19 and flattening the peak to avoid overloading the healthcare system should be listed as the main action of these high-risk countries/regions.
2020-03-30 Yang et al Short-term forecasts and long-term mitigation evaluations for the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei Province, China
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Based on 1099 patients in 31 provincial municipalities through January 29 th , 2020, Guan et al.
Preventive measures and social distancing measures need to be taken in combination by the government to speed up the containment of the epidemic and reduce the peak infection dramatically.
2020-03-31 Acuna-Zegarra et al The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic outbreak: a review of plausible scenarios of containment and mitigation for Mexico
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Observe that the peak incidence is approximately 4 935 individuals and it occurs 2 days after isolation began (January 26th, ) Figure 14(b) ).
The policies of containment and mitigation have to be applied quickly, with no hesitation.

Note that the results in this section do not include any control, mitigation of containment strategy.

The control, containment, mitigation and final resolution of the coronavirus epidemic requires careful consideration of alternative scenarios as pointed out very clearly in .
2020-04-01 Xie et al Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus — an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study The successful public health outbreak response tactics of Chinese government, such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, isolation, quarantine, social distancing, and community containment, can be copied by other countries according to their national situation.
2020-04-30 Ivanov et al Predicting the impacts of epidemic outbreaks on global supply chains: A simulation-based analysis on the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) case
Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
IV. Other The facilities have a risk mitigation inventory for a period between 15 and 30 days.

11 Action plan to mitigate gaps and problems of inequity in the Nation’s public health capability, capacity, and funding to ensure all citizens in need are supported and can access information, surveillance, and treatment.

11.0.0.1 Highlights

11.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Tao et al Healing the schism between public health and medicine, promoting the integration of prevention and treatment
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
IV. Other In future, when combating with novel infectious diseases and public health emergencies, the response capacity of public health system and treatment capacity of clinical system will be significantly improved, while the situation on insufficient integration of prevention and treatment is bound to be reversed.
2020 Ralph et al 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: Human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
IV. Prevalence Study

On 8 January 2020, it was reported that a novel coronavirus had been sequenced from one patient and subsequently identified in some of the other patients with pneumonia , later reported as 15 of the 59 patients .
Deficiencies in outbreak preparedness and healthcare network coordination efforts must ultimately be considered in response efforts.
2020 Cascella et al Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19)
StatPearls
IV. Other Health organizations coordinate information flows and issues directives and guidelines to best mitigate the impact of the threat.
2020-02-25 Tuite et al Estimation of COVID-2019 burden and potential for international dissemination of infection from Iran
medrxiv
IV. Other Supporting capacity for public health initiatives in the region is urgently needed.
2020-02-29 Wang et al Challenges to the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies: reflections on the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in China
BioScience Trends
IV. Other Although China has made great efforts to strengthen the ability to quickly respond to public health emergencies since the SARS outbreak in 2003 and it has clarified requirements for emergency supplies through legislation, the emergency reserve supplies program has not been effectively implemented, and there are also deficiencies in the types, quantity, and availability of emergency medical supplies.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other 16 Despite these challenges, health partners are increasingly able to document improved service coverage and impact.

Innovative tools such as the NCD kit and the Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP), which integrates mental health services in primary health care, are being introduced throughout the EMR.
2020-03-04 Wang et al Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other Besides monitoring child performance and behaviour, parents also need to respect their identity and needs, and they need to help children develop selfdiscipline skills.
2020-03-05 Peters et al Understanding the emerging coronavirus: what it means for health security and infection prevention
Journal of Hospital Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

50 Super spreading individuals were found to have a major impact in the previous MERS, SARS, and Ebola pandemics.
Health system capacity factors include the availability of treatment or vaccine, and the level of resources (both human, material, and financial) available for allocation.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Nevertheless, given the current knowledge and understanding, it is clear that action should be taken immediately to prepare for potential mitigation phases and coordinate efforts to protect the health of EU/EEA citizens in compliance with Decision 1082/2013/EU on serious cross-border threats to health .
2020-03-06 Riou et al Adjusted age-specific case fatality ratio during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei, China, January and February 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The model estimates that a total of 82,300 individuals (95%CrI: 73,000-91,800) were infected in Hubei between 1 January and 11 February 2020.
the proportion of all people with SARS-CoV-2 infection who will die from the disease are needed to plan health care capacity and for epidemic forecasting.
2020-03-06 Habibi et al Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 1 The intention of the IHR is that countries should not take needless measures that harm people or that disincentivise countries from reporting new risks to international public health authorities.
2020-03-07 Stoffel et al The ongoing crises in China illustrate that the assessment of epidemics in isolation is no longer sufficient
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
IV. Other The need for a health network of global scope for the rapid and open exchange of information needs to be strengthened in order to address ongoing and future epidemics under competing resources.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study highlighted the development need for relevant research methodologies, risk communication approaches, health data management strategies, practical health emergency study ethical guidelines, bridging global research capacity disparities, and infrastructure constraints, to ensure knowledge advancement in Health-EDRM.

This index allows the inclusion of non-communicable disease burden of countries/communities into the disaster risk assessment and may reflect underlying health needs and the capacity requirement to address Health-EDRM at the country level.
2020-03-13 Li et al The demand for inpatient and ICU beds for COVID-19 in the US: lessons from Chinese cities
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

During the peak of the epidemic from mid to late February, a maximum of 19,425 patients (24.5 per 10,000 adults) were hospitalized, 9,689 patients (12.2 per 10,000 adults) were considered to be in "serious" condition, and 2,087 patients (2.6 per 10,000 adults) needed critical care per day.
Capacity needs in Chinese cities could inform the planning of local healthcare resources.
2020-03-16 Tuite et al Estimation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Burden and Potential for International Dissemination of Infection From Iran
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Supporting capacity for public health initiatives in the region is urgently needed.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Response capacity depends on availability of preparedness and response plans and mechanisms and regular testing for functionality and updating them to address gaps.

Our findings show that many countries need support to achieve these capacities and increased support should be provided as a global priority action to strengthen health security.

Enabling function index C1.3-financing mechanism and funds for timely response to public health emergencies Availability and accessibility of financing mechanisms is essential for prevention, detection, and control of infectious disease outbreaks.

A country's response capacity depends on the strength of its emergency preparedness and the regular testing and updating of national plans and capacities.

Capacity building and collaboration between countries are needed to strengthen global readiness for outbreak control.

11 The results of these assessments are used to develop national action plans to strengthen IHR capacities for health security.

WHO bench marks for IHR capacities include corresponding actions that can increase a country's emergency preparedness, and are used to strengthen a country's emergency preparedness and health security.

36, 37 A study 36 on the assessments of health security capacities in the African Region also found similar variances in the capacity of countries.

Urgent action is needed to ensure that capacities are in place to prevent and manage health emergencies.

Capacity to detect C5.1-specimen referral and transport system; C5.3-access to laboratory testing capacity for priority diseases Not all countries will have capacity to test specimens.

Our results have implications for prioritising capacity building action in WHO Regions and countries, especially in terms of capacities regarding prevention, detection, response, enabling functions, and operational readiness.

The operational readiness index can be used to support WHO, governments, and other international agencies to prioritise their support and implementation of operational readiness capacities for the COVID-19 outbreak.

81 (45%) countries had prevent capacities and 78 (43%) had response capacities at levels 4 or 5, indicating that these countries were operationally ready.
2020-03-20 Legido-Quigley et al Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study However, their response is vulnerable to shortcomings in the coordination of services; access to adequate medical supplies and equipment; adequacy of risk communication; and public trust in government.
2020-03-20 Gilbert et al Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 27, 28 National public health capabilities and infrastructures remain at the core of global health security, because they are the first line of defence in infectious disease emergencies.

Cumulative incidence 100 30 10 0 1 × 10 -7 1 × 10 -6·5 1 × 10 -6 1 × 10 -5·5 1 × 10 -5 1 × 10 -4·5 >1 × 10 -4 See Online for appendix country's capacity to deal with the importation and spread of COVID-19 by averaging indicators from all capacities, except those of the capacities zoonoses, food safety, chemical events, and radiation emergency.
2020-03-23 Villela et al The value of mitigating epidemic peaks of COVID-19 for more effective public health responses
PMC
IV. Prevalence Study

The number of new cases can be assessed by a product between the force of infection, a measure of its transmission intensity, clearly proportional to its prevalence, and the number of susceptible individuals 2 .
In countries with severe social disparities and health inequity, such as Brazil, major portions of the population receive suboptimal attention in the public health system.
2020-03-23 Mareiniss et al The impending storm: COVID-19, pandemics and our overwhelmed emergency departments
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Other 17 Given the potential volume of patients, the lack of resources and likely shortages of material and personnel, we may need to use crisis standards of care in order to accommodate all the additional patients.
2020-03-24 Simcock et al COVID-19: Global Radiation Oncology’s Targeted Response for Pandemic Preparedness
Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study

During the weekend over 121 individuals from 17 countries and 6 continents contributed to the online discussion.
Departments need contingency planning to create capacity and continue essential treatments despite a reduced workforce.
2020-03-30 Ross et al Maximizing the Calm Before the Storm: Tiered Surgical Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Utilizing these methods, in the first week of implementation, out of 21 scheduled ACS clinic patients, we have already identified 19 patients able to be managed by virtual or telephone visits (91% reduction in clinic visit exposure).
Many hospitals, healthcare networks, and specifically Departments of Surgery are asking the same questions of how to cope and plan for surge capacity, personnel attrition, novel infrastructure utilization, and resource exhaustion.

Optimal disaster response necessitates knowledge, preparedness and coordination to ensure adequate resource availability and allocation.
2020-03-30 Ferstad et al A model to forecast regional demand for COVID-19 related hospital beds
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model In order to plan their response, hospital and public health officials need to understand how many people in their area are likely to require hospitalization for COVID-19; how these numbers compare to the number of available intensive care and acute care beds; and how to project the impact of socialdistancing measures on utilization.
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other All these phases require a thorough understanding of existing capacities, capabilities, and prior acknowledgement of the gaps where solutions are needed.
2020-03-31 Yamey et al Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines
The Lancet
IV. Other 12 High-level dialogue is needed on ways to ensure complementarity of efforts and global access to COVID-19 vaccines.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other As governments tighten border controls and implement other measures in response to COVID-19, they need to consider the impacts on refugees and migrants and ensure that such actions do not prevent people from accessing safety, health-care services, and information.
2020-04-01 Niehus et al Using observational data to quantify bias of traveller-derived COVID-19 prevalence estimates in Wuhan, China
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

We fitted our model using Stan version 2.19.1, 9 and we drew 80 000 samples from the joint posterior distribution of θ high , θ medium , θ low and β using four independent chains (20 000 samples each), and discarded for each chain the first 500 samples (burn-in).
Using the second component of the Global Health Security index to stratify likely case-detection capacities, the ability to detect imported cases relative to Singapore was 40% (95% HPDI 22–67) among locations with high surveillance capacity, 37% (18–68) among locations with medium surveillance capacity, and 11% (0–42) among locations with low surveillance capacity.

Our findings will support rapid deployment of outbreak surveillance and control capacities in regions at high risk of case importation paired with low surveillance capacity.
2020-04-01 Indolfi et al In Italy, the unexpected pandemic of Covid 19 has caused a never seen before the disaster in terms of hospitalizations and deaths.
JACC: Case Reports
IV. Other The advantage of the Italian health system is that all citizens may have access to medical therapies.
2020-04-01 Abhari et al COVID-19 Epidemic in Switzerland: Growth Prediction and Containment Strategy Using Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
medrxiv
IV. Other The primary goal of public authorities is to manage the outbreak so as to avoid overwhelming the health care system, in addition to buy time in order to bring online more capacity and resources that can handle the current and potential future peaks in the demand for emergency services.
2020-04-30 Kapata et al Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Increased governmental and donor investments are required to advance locally led, world-class public health work with surveillance, data and analytics capabilities and further expanding state-of-the-art laboratory capacities with more J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f trained personnel to sustain capacity to rapidly respond to outbreaks at their source.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study The SFDRR aims to enhance national and community capacity to cope with disaster risks.

These recommendations concern knowledge and science provision in understanding disaster and health-related emergency risks, the extension of disaster risk governance to manage both disaster risks and potential health-emergencies, particularly for humanitarian coordination aspects; and the strengthening of community-level preparedness and response.
2020-07-31 Artika et al Pathogenic viruses: Molecular detection and characterization
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
IV. Prevalence Study The laboratory biosecurity system should cover physical security, virus control and accountability, personnel security, transport security, and information security; the implementation of which needs to be integrated with the overall biosafety plan (Artika and Ma'roef, 2018) .

12 Measures to reach marginalized and disadvantaged populations.

12.0.0.1 Highlights

12.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Zhang et al Recommended psychological crisis intervention response to the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in China: a model of West China Hospital
Precision Clinical Medicine
IV. Other 6 During these epidemics, the consequences on the psychosocial wellbeing of at-risk communities are sometimes largely overlooked, especially in the Ebola-affected regions, where few measures were taken to address the mental health needs of confirmed patients, their families, medical staffs or general population.
2020 Liebrenz et al Caring for persons in detention suffering with mental illness during the Covid-19 outbreak
Forensic Science International: Mind and Law
IV. Other 12 However, it should not be forgotten that psychiatric and psychological care must not just be provided to affected individuals among the general population, but also to vulnerable groups such as people in detention, homes, and asylum centers.
2020-01-28 Ming et al Breaking down of the healthcare system: Mathematical modelling for controlling the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan, China
biorxiv
IV. Computer Model To achieve higher efficacy of the public health interventions, efforts from individuals should not be neglected.
2020-02-19 Liem et al The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other 2 Under normal conditions, IMWs have a high burden of common mental disorders (eg, depression) and a lower quality of life than local populations.
2020-02-20 Li et al Estimation of the epidemic properties of the 2019 novel coronavirus: A mathematical modeling study
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model In light of the epidemic threat identified here, these cities should consider implementing more aggressive prevention policies as necessary, while respecting human rights and the dignity of affected individuals and of those who might be disadvantaged by stricter quarantine and control mechanisms.
2020-02-21 Cheng et al Scabies: Application of the Novel Identify-Isolate-Inform Tool for Detection and Management
West J Emerg Med
IV. Prevalence Study

36 Advising patients and parents of young patients to keep fingernails short and clean can assist with preventing secondary infections.
22, 33 The most vulnerable populations to scabies infestations are young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised.

Populations at highest risk for scabies include children, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and people in congregate living conditions, including refugee camps.
2020-02-28 Heymann et al COVID-19: what is next for public health?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

8 Infected individuals produce a large quantity of virus in the upper respiratory tract during a prodrome period, are mobile, and carry on usual activities, contributing to the spread of infection.
Alongside scalability, a need exists for inclusive tools that allow for genuine and meaningful engagement from children in rural areas, ethnic minorities, gender and sexual minorities, those exposed to poverty and violence, and those who experience health challenges.
2020-03-04 Fan et al Prediction of Epidemic Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Driven by Spring Festival Transportation in China: A Population-Based Study
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Other Wuhan’s migrants have a large proportion of middle-aged and high-risk individuals.
2020-03-04 Wang et al Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other Such a social safety net could be particularly useful for disadvantaged or single-parent families, 9 but action is needed to make it accessible to them.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Mental health and suicide are significant issues among marginalized populations which do not receive sufficient attention.

The special issue also touches on risk behaviors among marginalized populations.

Sexual minorities, people with mental illness, migrants, refugees, the homeless, transient populations, transgender people, sex workers and many other groups who do not conform to existing social norms, or who have historically been marginalized and excluded, experience many often completely preventable illnesses.

They reported that minority women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds easily engaged with a culturally relevant and acceptable cardiovascular disease prevention intervention, which positively motivated healthy dietary behaviour, and showed that, with the correct engagement, marginalized groups can have reduced dietary risks.

With proper respect for the dignity of every individual and a commitment to end discrimination, marginalization and stigmatization, it is possible to ensure that all members of the global community enjoy the same high standards of health, and by attending to and investing more in the health of marginalized people, we can make progress towards health for all.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Special efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations, including healthcare workers, elderly and children.

Therefore, special attention and efforts should be applied to protect and reduce transmission and progression in vulnerable populations including healthcare workers, elderly people and children.
2020-03-06 Habibi et al Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study In the short term, travel restrictions prevent supplies from getting into affected areas, slow down the international public health response, stigmatise entire populations, and disproportionately harm the most vulnerable among us.
2020-03-06 Xu et al Close contacts and household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in China: a content analysis based on local Heath Commissions' public disclosures.
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The risk of being infected outside of households is higher for age groups between 18 and 64 64 years, whereas the hazard of being infected within households is higher for age groups of young 65 (<18) and elderly (>65) people.
2020-03-12 Schwartz et al Climate Change, Covid-19, Preparedness, and Consciousness
EXPLORE
IV. Other About 20% of the population live in one of these counties À that's just under 66 million men, women, and children, although this population is skewed older; 17.5% are older than 65, compared to urban areas where that percentage is 13.8% In some states more than 50% of the older population lives in these rural areas.
2020-03-13 Li et al The demand for inpatient and ICU beds for COVID-19 in the US: lessons from Chinese cities
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

During the peak of the epidemic from mid to late February, a maximum of 19,425 patients (24.5 per 10,000 adults) were hospitalized, 9,689 patients (12.2 per 10,000 adults) were considered to be in "serious" condition, and 2,087 patients (2.6 per 10,000 adults) needed critical care per day.
The need for healthcare resources may be higher in some US cities where there is a higher prevalence of vulnerable populations (age and comorbidity) than in Wuhan.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
Due to limited access to internet and online health information resources, vulnerable populations of Chinese society under the COVID-19 epidemic such as older adults and rural people at grass-root level are more likely to have poor knowledge, negative attitudes, and inappropriate preventive practices towards COVID-19.

Considering that educational attainment and occupation are often used as proxy measures of socioeconomic status , strictly speaking, our findings can only be generalized to Chinese populations of a relatively high socioeconomic status, particularly women.
2020-03-16 Liu et al Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 Outbreak in China Hardest-hit Areas: Gender differences matter
Psychiatry Research
IV. Prevalence Study

A total of 285 participants were recruited in the study, among which 124(43.5%) were currently in Wuhan, and 188(66%) were previously in Wuhan.
Professional and effective mental health services should be designed in order to aid the psychological wellbeing of the population in affected areas, especially those living in hardest-hit areas, females and people with poor sleep quality.
2020-03-17 Kinner et al Prisons and custodial settings are part of a comprehensive response to COVID-19
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study The fast spread of COVID-19 will, like most epidemics, disproportionately affect the most disadvantaged people.
2020-03-17 Handel et al If containment is not possible, how do we minimize mortality for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious disease outbreaks?
medrxiv
IV. Other While school closures have proven to be an important means for delaying or reducing outbreaks , they come with large economic and societal costs, with generally an outsized impact on disadvantaged and vulnerable populations .

In conclusion, we suggest that in a scenario where containment is not possible and it is necessary to allow some infections to occur to achieve population immunity, interventions that protect vulnerable populations from getting infected should be given the highest priority, followed by interventions targeting the general population, and finally those targeting the least vulnerable, which for COVID-19 seem to be children.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Our findings underscore the pressing need for preparedness and timely interventions in states with a large fraction of the vulnerable uninsured and liquid-asset-poverty populations.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
Those quarantined during the Ebola epidemic in Liberia reported that stigma could lead to disenfranchisement of minority groups in the community as families under quarantine were often said to belong to different ethnic groups, tribes, or religions and were perceived as dangerous because they were different.
2020-03-20 Feng et al Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Other 9 Meanwhile, health authorities should optimise face mask distribution to prioritise the needs of frontline health-care workers and the most vulnerable populations in communities who are more susceptible to infection and mortality if infected, including older adults (particularly those older than 65 years) and people with underlying health conditions.

In addition, vulnerable populations, such as older adults and those with underlying medical conditions, should wear face masks if available.
2020-03-21 DeCaprio et al Building a COVID-19 Vulnerability Index
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The risk of severe complications from COVID-19 is higher for certain vulnerable populations, particularly people who are elderly, frail, or have multiple chronic conditions.
2020-03-23 Lewnard et al Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study Special attention should be given to protections for vulnerable populations, such as homeless, incarcerated, older, or disabled individuals, and undocumented migrants.
2020-03-24 Wingfield et al Tackling two pandemics: a plea on World Tuberculosis Day
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study

Children are less severely affected by COVID-19, whereas 1·1 million children had tuberculosis disease in 2018, of whom 200 000 died.
Tuberculosis disproportionately affects men and boys compared with women and girls.
2020-03-25 Kelvin et al COVID-19 in children: the link in the transmission chain
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other If children are important in viral transmission and amplification, social and public health policies (eg, avoiding interaction with elderly people) could be established to slow transmission and protect vulnerable populations.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid overview of reviews
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

During full text review, articles were included if they contained the number of influenza cases occurring on a specific date or within a 3-day period, such as through an epidemic curve or a line list of symptom onset dates 37 studies N = NR Long term care facilitiesdefined as any residential environment that housed older adults or elderly individuals with the assistance of medical staff and included facilities referred to as 'assisted living' or 'nursing homes' but excluded community centers and daytime-only facilities serving older adults living in the outside community.
Population: Individuals aged 60 years and above residing in long-term care facilities.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
Population: Individuals aged 60 years and above residing in long-term care facilities.
2020-03-26 Nguyen et al Human leukocyte antigen susceptibility map for SARS-CoV-2
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Population allele frequency data was aggregated by country as a mean of all constituent population allele frequencies weighted by sample size of the population, but not accounting for representative ethnic demographic size of the population.
2020-03-27 Ribeiro et al Severe airport sanitarian control could slow down the spreading of COVID-19 pandemics in Brazil
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Reaching 243 isolated regions means reaching indigenous or traditional communities, whose 244 individuals are classically more susceptible to new pathogens than western-influenced 245 or mixed urban populations.
Reaching 243 isolated regions means reaching indigenous or traditional communities, whose 244 individuals are classically more susceptible to new pathogens than western-influenced 245 or mixed urban populations.
2020-03-30 Truelove et al COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond
medrxiv
IV. Other These refugee populations are also particularly vulnerable to the serious consequences of pandemics as targeted responses among a dispersed group of refugees, and equity in health service delivery is very difficult to achieve.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study It can be seen that traffic control measures play a role in cities with a high population size and middle population sizes, while social distancing is only effective in cities with a high population size, All rights reserved.
2020-03-30 Gupta et al Trend Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak in India
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The risk of severe complications from COVID-19 is higher for certain vulnerable populations, particularly people who are elderly, frail, or have multiple chronic conditions.
2020-03-30 Burns et al Symptom-Based Isolation Policies: Evidence from a Mathematical Model of Outbreaks of Influenza and COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis The population was structured into cohorts representing ages in a school.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other 4 Yet migrants and refugees are often stigmatised and unjustly discriminated against for spreading disease and such unacceptable attitudes further risk wider public health outcomes, including for host populations, since refugees and migrants could be fearful to seek treatment or disclose symptoms.

Migrants and refugees are particularly vulnerable to the impact of COVID-19 in the wider community.

5 Living conditions for homeless refugees and migrants can undermine the ability to follow public health advice, including basic hygiene measures, quarantine, or self-isolation, because many people are in close contact and gather in large groups.
2020-04-01 Devakumar et al Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses
The Lancet
IV. Other Ethnic minority groups are also at greater risk because of comorbidities-for example, high rates of hypertension in Black populations 3 and diabetes in south Asians.

Policies necessary to control popu lations (eg, restriction of movement, or surveillance) might be misappropriated, and marginalised groups have been traditionally targeted.
2020-05-31 Lima et al The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease)
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Results: : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

Results : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

13 Data systems and research priorities and agendas incorporate attention to the needs and circumstances of disadvantaged populations and underrepresented minorities.

13.0.0.1 Highlights

13.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 ZHANG et al Analysis on the layout of China’s emergency research projects during the public health emergency of COVID-19
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Results Along with priorities identified for the emergency response and key research agendas, the national science and technology authorities at all levels and scientific research institutions have deployed a series of new science and technology projects, as well as a number of supporting policies and measures.
2020 Zhang et al Recommended psychological crisis intervention response to the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in China: a model of West China Hospital
Precision Clinical Medicine
IV. Other 6 During these epidemics, the consequences on the psychosocial wellbeing of at-risk communities are sometimes largely overlooked, especially in the Ebola-affected regions, where few measures were taken to address the mental health needs of confirmed patients, their families, medical staffs or general population.
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation.

9,10 Further research to identify the risk factors among different populations will help develop more locally-relevant and fine-tuned risk mitigation strategies and address the social and ecological bias to identifying recommendations for other community settings.
2020-02-19 Liem et al The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other 2 Under normal conditions, IMWs have a high burden of common mental disorders (eg, depression) and a lower quality of life than local populations.
2020-02-25 Zhu et al The Risk and Prevention of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Infections Among Inpatients in Psychiatric Hospitals
Neurosci Bull
IV. Other The guiding principles divide the population affected by NCP into 6 categories and 4 levels and require the firstlevel population to be the focus of psychological crisis intervention.
2020-02-26 Haider et al Passengers' destinations from China: low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
Epidemiol Infect
IV. Prevalence Study These countries are at risk and they should be the priorities for investment in case detection and airport screening.
2020-02-28 Heymann et al COVID-19: what is next for public health?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

8 Infected individuals produce a large quantity of virus in the upper respiratory tract during a prodrome period, are mobile, and carry on usual activities, contributing to the spread of infection.
Alongside scalability, a need exists for inclusive tools that allow for genuine and meaningful engagement from children in rural areas, ethnic minorities, gender and sexual minorities, those exposed to poverty and violence, and those who experience health challenges.
2020-02-28 Fisher et al Q&A: The novel coronavirus outbreak causing COVID-19
BMC Med
IV. Other Countries with vulnerable health systems are particularly of concern.
2020-02-29 Lee et al Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
Public Health
IV. Other Unfortunately, in resource-constrained settings, investment in this critical health protection infrastructure is a low priority compared with other health priorities.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other Nonetheless, the health sector has much more to do and WHO has identified priorities for improving the collective health response.
2020-03-04 Chang et al Weaponized Interdependence: China's Economic Statecraft and Social Penetration against Taiwan
Orbis
IV. Prevalence Study Therefore, Germany cultivated vested interests in those countries, and tied the interests of existing powerful groups in their societies to relations with Germany.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Sexual minorities, people with mental illness, migrants, refugees, the homeless, transient populations, transgender people, sex workers and many other groups who do not conform to existing social norms, or who have historically been marginalized and excluded, experience many often completely preventable illnesses.

examined the health beliefs and practices of Gypsies and Travelers in the UK, where these communities experience significant marginalization and discrimination.
2020-03-09 Anderson et al How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Other Such mitigation objectives are difficult to achieve by the same interventions, so choices must be made about priorities.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study highlighted the development need for relevant research methodologies, risk communication approaches, health data management strategies, practical health emergency study ethical guidelines, bridging global research capacity disparities, and infrastructure constraints, to ensure knowledge advancement in Health-EDRM.
2020-03-13 Li et al The demand for inpatient and ICU beds for COVID-19 in the US: lessons from Chinese cities
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

During the peak of the epidemic from mid to late February, a maximum of 19,425 patients (24.5 per 10,000 adults) were hospitalized, 9,689 patients (12.2 per 10,000 adults) were considered to be in "serious" condition, and 2,087 patients (2.6 per 10,000 adults) needed critical care per day.
The need for healthcare resources may be higher in some US cities where there is a higher prevalence of vulnerable populations (age and comorbidity) than in Wuhan.

Capacity needs in Chinese cities could inform the planning of local healthcare resources.
2020-03-13 Chen et al COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year
The Lancet
IV. Other Their recommendations, and those of others, were that young children should not be separated from their parents, and Guidance for the health sector to partner with parents and families for early childhood development
2020-03-13 Harman et al The danger of stories in global health
The Lancet
IV. Other However, women's everyday knowledge and stories of how health systems function in particular settings are usually devalued or ignored, especially in policy and agenda setting.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
As suggested by findings from previous studies regarding age and gender patterns of risk-taking behaviors , men and late adolescents are more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors.
2020-03-18 Dowd et al Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Law enforcement officers (at least 500 men) are deployed only on February 25 to ensure that no one enters and exits the so-called red areas creating 35 gates.
For these measures to be effective, special attention should be devoted to those population groups that are more at risk and patterns of intergenerational contact.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
Those quarantined during the Ebola epidemic in Liberia reported that stigma could lead to disenfranchisement of minority groups in the community as families under quarantine were often said to belong to different ethnic groups, tribes, or religions and were perceived as dangerous because they were different.
2020-03-20 Wenham et al COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other 13 If the response to disease outbreaks such as COVID-19 is to be effective and not reproduce or perpetuate gender and health inequities, it is important that gender norms, roles, and relations that influence women's and men's differential vulnerability to infection, exposure to pathogens, and treatment received, as well as how these may differ among different groups of women and men, are considered and addressed.

Experience from past outbreaks shows the importance of incorporating a gender analysis into preparedness and response efforts to improve the effectiveness of health interventions and promote gender and health equity goals.
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other For larger health systems, wellness committees and employee assistance programs are the logical resources to organize these interventions.

Surveys to assess stress points, fears, and concerns can inform leaders and provide insight into areas requiring attention.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Social stakeholders in this shrinking commons complain, like others, that research is not relevant and also that practitioners and researchers need to place more emphasis on community and social goals beyond economic ones.

Each case uses overarching educational goals and processes to integrate mindsets, interests and approaches of social, research and practice stakeholders, bridging and advancing understanding across the three domains of research, practice and social stakeholder while delivering valuable outcomes to each.

This is often at personal cost to individual careers because efforts devoted to the goals of 'other' domains, or leading initiatives that bridge domains, attracts little career recognition.
2020-03-20 Feng et al Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Other 9 Meanwhile, health authorities should optimise face mask distribution to prioritise the needs of frontline health-care workers and the most vulnerable populations in communities who are more susceptible to infection and mortality if infected, including older adults (particularly those older than 65 years) and people with underlying health conditions.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Our findings underscore the pressing need for preparedness and timely interventions in states with a large fraction of the vulnerable uninsured and liquid-asset-poverty populations.
2020-03-20 Geldsetzer et al Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among the General Public in the United States and the United Kingdom: A Cross-sectional Online Survey
Ann Intern Med
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

The platform's pool of participants numbers approximately 80 000 individuals, of whom approximately 43% Participants, who had to have indicated that they were fluent in English, received US$1.50 for completing the survey.
Discussion: The findings of this study could be used to set priorities in information campaigns on COVID-19 by public health authorities and the media.
2020-03-23 Rios et al Effectiveness and safety of antiviral or antibody treatments for coronavirus
medrxiv
III-2. Matched Case Control

The four cases reports/series 29,45,46,48 that included immunosuppressed patients with MERS (5 patients) and unspecified coronavirus (2 patients) reported 3 deaths all in patients with hematological malignancies treated with foscarnet (n=1) and oseltamivir (n=2).
Subgroups of interest include older adults aged >65 years, pediatric, pregnant, or immunocompromised patients.
2020-03-23 Jin et al Development and Evaluation of an AI System for COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

A large dataset was constructed by collecting 970 CT volumes of 496 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 260 negative cases from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, and 1,125 negative cases from two publicly available chest CT datasets.
In the subsets divided by gender, the diagnostic performance of men was higher than that of women.

In the subsets divided by age, the disease developed rapidly in the elderly patients and the CT findings were more obvious than young patients.
2020-03-28 Foddai et al Base protocol for real time active random surveillance of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) – Adapting veterinary methodology to public health
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study The frequency of the surveys would depend on the resources available and on the management needs of public health authorities for improved decision making, prioritizations and anticipating response needs (i.e., hospital beds, ventilators, medical staff on location or on call etc.).
2020-03-30 Wang et al Genetic Profiles in Pharmacogenes Indicate Personalized Drug Therapy for COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

As many as 16 clinical trials related to chloroquine, and two clinical trials for mild and common patients and severe patients will be completed on April 30, 2020 (ChiCTR2000029898, ChiCTR2000029899), each clinical trial includes a total of 100 participants.
Due to the activity difference exists among populations, the genotypes of important alleles in CYP450 family should be detected after diagnosis, then treatment strategies for these drugs can be suggested in these patients.
2020-03-30 Truelove et al COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond
medrxiv
IV. Other These refugee populations are also particularly vulnerable to the serious consequences of pandemics as targeted responses among a dispersed group of refugees, and equity in health service delivery is very difficult to achieve.
2020-03-31 Adolph et al Pandemic Politics: Timing State-Level Social Distancing Responses to COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

To show just how small this effect is, we compare a state with just four confirmed cases (the median among all state-days in our study period) to a state with 426 cases (the 95th percentile).
Under normal circumstances, governors' policy decisions are shaped by the national leaders and agenda of their political party and the demands of their own constituents, particularly those in their partisan base.

Moving beyond general impressions of the determinants of social distancing poses challenges: States with Democratic governors and voters tend to be both richer than Republican states, and to be more urban and coastal.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Measures to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic are a focus of communities in countries, but preparedness plans should consider refugees and migrants and their needs.
2020-03-31 Adams et al Goals of Care in a Pandemic: Our Experience and Recommendations
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other The first area of importance is to engage hospital leadership and understand their priorities.

Palliative care leaders will have unique perspectives and priorities which need to be communicated to hospital and health system leadership.
2020-03-31 Tuech et al Stratégie pour la pratique de la chirurgie digestive et oncologique en situation d’épidémie de COVID-19
Journal de Chirurgie Viscérale
IV. Other Healthcare priorities and circuits are being modified.
2020-03-31 Tuech et al Strategy for the practice of digestive and oncological surgery during the Covid-19 epidemic
Journal of Visceral Surgery
IV. Prevalence Study

This prospective trial included 1421 patients, and mortality at 3 months was 6.3%.
Healthcare priorities and circuits are being modified.
2020-04-01 Devakumar et al Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses
The Lancet
IV. Other Ethnic minority groups are also at greater risk because of comorbidities-for example, high rates of hypertension in Black populations 3 and diabetes in south Asians.
2020-04-30 Georgalakis et al A disconnected policy network: The UK's response to the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic
Social Science & Medicine
IV. Other This community did indeed emerge or coalesce around the demand placed on their expertise by policy makers concerned with the community engagement dimensions of the response.
2020-05-31 Lima et al The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease)
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Results: : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

Results : Populations of patients that may require tailored interventions are older adults and international migrant workers.

14 Mitigating threats to incarcerated people from COVID-19, assuring access to information, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

14.0.0.1 Highlights

14.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Expert consensus on rehabilitation practice during outbreaks of the novel coronavirus pneumonia and other infectious respiratory diseases
Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
IV. Other The consensus statement provides guidance on: safeguarding medical staff, patients, caregivers and visitors; and timing and methods of effective rehabilitation interventions for treatment of COVID-19 patients.
2020 XU et al Advices on the prevention and control of nosocomial infection of novel coronavirus within children’s hospitals
Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration
IV. Other This threat is posing a severe challenge on the diagnosis and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection, the prevention and control of hospital cross infection of medical staff.
2020 BAI et al Diagnosis and rational approach to emergency vascular surgery in the shadow of novel coronavirus pneumonia
Chinese Journal of General Surgery
IV. Other Conclusions Under the COVID-19 prevention and control guidelines, the establishing of a comprehensive prevention and control system of patient-medicine-care-management helps to perform confine operation on vascular surgical emergency.
2020 Li et al [Treatment strategies of Budd-Chiari syndrome during the epidemic period of 2019 coronavirus disease]
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
IV. Other Prevention and control about the situation of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are grim at present.
2020 Ma et al [Recommendations for the regulation of medical practices of burn treatment during the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019]
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns
IV. Other According to the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 (6(th) trial edition), the latest relative literature at home and abroad, the features of the COVID-19, recommendations for the COVID-19 prevention and control issued by the National Health Commission of China, and management experience of diagnosis and treatment in the related disciplines, we put forward recommendations for the medical practices of burn treatment during the outbreak of the COVID-19 in outpatient and emergency treatment, inpatient treatment, operation and ward management, etc.
2020-01-25 Shen et al Modelling the epidemic trend of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China
biorxiv
IV. Other Timely diagnosis for quarantine and integrated interventions are essential for curbing the epidemic.
2020-02-02 Alavi-Moghaddam et al A Novel Coronavirus Outbreak from Wuhan City in China, Rapid Need for Emergency Departments Preparedness and Response; a Letter to Editor
Arch Acad Emerg Med
IV. Prevalence Study Clinical care of patients with suspected 2019-nCoV should focus on early recognition, immediate isolation (separation), implementation of appropriate infection prevention and control (IPC) measures and provision optimized supportive care.
2020-02-06 Jin et al A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)
Mil Med Res
II. Randomized Controlled Trial Until to 24:00 on 29 January 2020, 11,500 persons were screened, and 276 were identified as suspected infectious victims, and 170 were diagnosed (including 33 in critical condition) for 2019-nCoV infection in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University.
2020-02-07 Shen et al Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement
World Journal of Pediatrics
IV. Other Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement
2020-02-14 Bajema et al Persons Evaluated for 2019 Novel Coronavirus — United States, January 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
IV. Other Recognizing persons at risk for 2019-nCoV is critical to identifying cases and preventing further transmission.
2020-02-20 Deng et al Characteristics of and Public Health Responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in China
J Clin Med
IV. Prevalence Study Overall guidance of epidemic control, organizing a technical expert group for prevention and control; formulation and improvement of relevant work and technical schemes, and implementation of funds and materials for disease prevention and control; tracking and management of close contacts.
2020-02-21 Wang et al A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

3 In The Lancet, Chaolin Huang and colleagues 7 report clinical features of the first 41 patients admitted to the designated hospital in Wuhan who were confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV by Jan 2, 2020.
Rapid information disclosure is a top priority for disease control and prevention.
2020-02-22 Hao et al Clinical Features of Atypical 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia with an initially Negative RT-PCR Assay
Journal of Infection
IV. Other The timely diagnosis, isolation and treatment of these patients will help control the further spread of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-28 Lillie et al Novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19): The first two patients in the UK with person to person transmission
Journal of Infection
IV. Other This should provide reassurance to healthcare workers managing patients with suspected Covid-19 in the UK that current PPE is both feasible and effective.
2020-02-29 Han et al Estimate the incubation period of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We collected a dataset with 59 officially confirmed COVID-19 cases from 10 regions in China except for Hubei province, the assumed origin of the virus.
Accurate estimation of the incubation period of the coronavirus is essential to the prevention and control.
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
Timely and accurate reporting of the status of the epidemic and scientific guidance on prevention and infection control played important roles in stabilizing people and overcoming the epidemic .

The other aim is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and management of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 to better understand this deadly coronavirus and suggest prevention, treatment and management strategies.
2020-03-05 Liang et al Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) in pregnancy: What clinical recommendations to follow?
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
IV. Other Interim guidance has been issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on managing COVID-19, which include some recommendations specific to pregnant women mostly drawn on experience from previous coronavirus outbreaks.8, 9 Chinese expert recommendations for the care of pregnant women with suspected and confirmed COVID-9 were developed and disseminated in China quite early following the outbreak in Wuhan.10 These recommendations have been dynamic, evolving as more knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease progression and clinical course among infected pregnant patients has been gathered.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Due to severe shortage of medical resources in this period, many confirmed or suspected cases could not receive timely treatment and were self-quarantined at home.
2020-03-07 Baker et al Preparing for a Surge of Coronavirus Cases
The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
IV. Other  Have a clear system notifying patients of their role in preventing the transmission of communicable diseases.
2020-03-10 Xu et al Clinical Characteristics of Two Human to Human Transmitted Coronaviruses: Corona Virus Disease 2019 versus Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Among thirty-two included studies, four studies obtained 6 points of NOS , and remaining twenty-eight studies obtained 7 points of NOS or more [8-25, 27, 29-31, 33-34, 36-39] .
Currently, the measure to COVID-19 is to control the source of the infection; taking personal protective works to reduce the risk of transmission; and early diagnosing, isolating and supportive treating for confirmed patients.
2020-03-11 Wu et al TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

1 Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients have even higher levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, G-CSF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFa.
Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need.

Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need, especially for the life-threatening severe cases.
2020-03-13 Rodriguez-Morales et al Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
I. Systematic Review

Our review included 19 studies that were published between January 1, 2020, and February 21, 2020, most of them from China and one from Australia (Table 1) , including a total of 2874 patients, ranging from a case series of 9 to a cross-sectional study of 1590 .
To effectively protect populations and healthcare workers in the face of arrival and spreading of this emerging viral pathogen, constant evaluation of available evidence is essential to guide clinical suspicion, diagnosis, management, and mitigation of transmission of COVID-19.
2020-03-13 Bhagavathula et al Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Knowledge and Perceptions: A Survey of Healthcare Workers
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 529 HCWs participated, 453 of whom completed the study questionnaire (85.6% response rate), including 234 (51.6%) men and 219 (48.3%) women; most of the participants were below 44 years of age (82.4%).
By the end of January, the WHO and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had published recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 for HCWs .
2020-03-15 Xiang et al The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: managing challenges through mental health service reform
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other In China, most psychiatrists do not receive adequate training in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
2020-03-20 Guan et al Imaging Features of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation on Thin-Section CT
Academic Radiology
IV. Prevalence Study

Among the three patients, the CT images still showed normal lungs in one patient, and GGO in the lower lobes in the other two patients (Fig 5) .
Identification of CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia provide timely diagnostic evidence of the disease enabling early diagnosis and treatment.
2020-03-20 Hirotsu et al Double-Quencher Probes Improved the Detection Sensitivity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by One-Step RT-PCR
medrxiv
IV. Other The molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is highly prioritized to establish the prevention of the viral outbreak and treatment of infected patients.

The detection of SARS-CoV-2 is important for the prevention of the outbreak and management of patients.
2020-03-20 Zhang et al Estimating Preventable COVID19 Infections Related to Elective Outpatient Surgery in Washington State: A Quantitative Model
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Thus we multiplied our ratio with 3047 total patients per day and 2742 total HCW to arrive at the initial values of 0.18 asymptomatic infected patients per day, 3046.82 uninfected patients per day, 0.16 asymptomatic infected HCW, and 2741.84 uninfected HCW.
11 Given the current status of the COVID-19 outbreak, the US Surgeon General, 12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 13 American College of Surgeons (ACS), 14 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) 15 have recommended considering rescheduling or postponing some elective surgeries with the goal of conserving limited resources, such as ventilators and ICU beds, and mitigating the risk of "exposing other inpatients, outpatients, and health care providers to the risk of contracting COVID-19" from asymptomatic but infectious patients.
2020-03-20 Matthay et al Treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
III-2. Cross Sectional Control The authors describe pragmatic approaches to the challenges of delivering ECMO to patients with COVID-19, including training health-care personnel, resolving equipment and facilities issues, implementing systems for infection control and personal protection, providing overall support for health-care staff, and mitigating ethical issues.
2020-03-23 Yan et al Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Hainan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other In light of the rapid spread of Covid-19 around the world, and no specialized medication to treat Covid-19, early identification and diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of Covid-19 to prevent patients from developing into critical illness.
2020-03-23 Tian et al Clinical characteristics and reasons of different duration from onset to release from quarantine for patients with COVID-19 Outside Hubei province, China.
medrxiv
IV. Other The diagnosis, release from quarantine and severity of all cases were determined in accordance with the protocol of diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia issued by National Health
2020-03-23 Ikizler et al COVID-19 and Dialysis Units: What Do We Know Now and What Should We Do?
American Journal of Kidney Diseases
IV. Other In response to this emerging threat, multiple organizations have developed guidance documents for prevention and control of COVID-19 in the outpatient hemodialysis setting.
2020-03-24 Chavez et al Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A primer for emergency physicians
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study

60 One study of 204 patients with confirmed COVID-19 suggests 48.5% of patients have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.
Emergency physicians should focus on identifying patients at risk, isolating suspected patients, and informing hospital infection prevention and public health authorities.
2020-03-24 Emami et al Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Arch Acad Emerg Med
I. Systematic Review

RESULTS: The data of 76993 patients presented in 10 articles were included in this study.
There are some responsibilities for health policymakers in this critical condition: Screening of travelers, triage all patients on admission and immediately isolating all suspected and confirmed cases, providing protective gear, preparing local guidance and instructions for people, especially for high risk groups .
2020-03-24 Bian et al Meplazumab treats COVID-19 pneumonia: an open-labelled, concurrent controlled add-on clinical trial
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

11 hospitalized patients who met the inclusion criteria and with no exclusion criteria signs were collected as concurrent control in the same period.
Any enrolled patients received recommended treatment according to the Diagnosis and Treatment for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases.
2020-03-24 Wood et al Precautions and Procedures for Coronary and Structural Cardiac Interventions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Guidance from Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology
Canadian Journal of Cardiology
IV. Other The key principles of this document are to maintain essential interventional cardiovascular care while minimizing risks of COVID-19 to patients/staff and maintaining the overall healthcare resources.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
In the management of an outbreak, the role of this person is important in facilitating assessment and management of ill residents, and in working with the RCF and PHU to implement control strategies.
2020-03-28 Zhai et al The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
III-2. Matched Case Control

Another study later using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases had a similar mean incubation period, which was 6.4 days (95% CI: 5.6-7.7) .
Chloroquine was included in the recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia .
2020-03-30 Cheng et al China's fight against COVID-19: What we have done and what we should do next?
medrxiv
IV. Other In other provinces, the focus was on preventing importations, curbing the spread of the disease and implementing joint prevention and control measures.
2020-03-31 Barazzoni et al Espen expert statements and practical guidance for nutritional management of individuals with sars-cov-2 infection
Clinical Nutrition
IV. Other Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition should therefore be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients.

Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of 38 malnutrition should therefore be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients.
2020-03-31 Elwood et al SOGC Committee Opinion – COVID-19 in Pregnancy
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
IV. Other Pregnant women and their loved ones will be looking to maternal care providers for information and guidance on how to prevent or manage infection with COVID-19.
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other A range of measures has been urgently adopted,1,2 such as early identification and isolation of suspected and diagnosed cases, contact tracing and monitoring, collection of clinical data and biological samples from patients, dissemination of regional and national diagnostic criteria and expert treatment consensus, establishment of isolation units and hospitals, and prompt provision of medical supplies and external expert teams to Hubei province.

A range of measures has been urgently adopted, 1,2 such as early identification and isolation of suspected and diagnosed cases, contact tracing and monitoring, collection of clinical data and biological samples from patients, dissemination of regional and national diagnostic criteria and expert treatment consensus, establishment of isolation units and hospitals, and prompt provision of medical supplies and external expert teams to Hubei province.
2020-03-31 Wittkowski et al The first three months of the COVID-19 epidemic: Epidemiological evidence for two separate strains of SARS-CoV-2 viruses spreading and implications for prevention strategies
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019; Haddad 2019) In the case of heterosexual transmission of HIV one could argue that there was little risk associated with a the public health policy promoting condom use, but in the case of COVID-19 prevention, ignoring models and data may carry substantial risk.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
27 Among 493 health care workers caring for hospitalized patients, 10/493 health care workers became infected with COVID-19; all 10 were unprotected health care workers (no mask) caring for patients on medical wards with a low risk of exposure (no known or suspected COVID-19 patients).
2020-04-30 Jiang et al Psychological crisis intervention during the outbreak period of new coronavirus pneumonia from experience in Shanghai
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other The main premise of PCI is to minimize psychological damages and provide timely assistance to the prevention and control of the epidemic.
2020-05-31 Ling et al Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with persistent negative CT findings
European Journal of Radiology
IV. Other Medical observation and home isolation for suspected individuals play important roles in timely detecting and containing this emerging communicable disease.

15 Understanding coverage policies (barriers and opportunities) related to testing, treatment, and care

15.0.0.1 Highlights

15.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Gorbalenya et al The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2
Nature Microbiology
IV. Other Future studies aimed at understanding the ecology of these viruses and advancing the accuracy and resolution of evolutionary analyses 41 would benefit greatly from adjusting our research and sampling strategies.
2020 HUA et al Strategy of dental clinics to cope with the epidemic period of infectious diseases based on the experience of corona virus disease outbreak
West China Journal of Stomatology
IV. Other Strategies following the National Laws and Standards of China and local standards of several provinces for controlling cross-infection and instituting protective measures for medical staff in dental clinics during an epidemic period are discussed.
2020-01-30 Gostic et al Estimated effectiveness of traveller screening to prevent international spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Using each parameter set, we 162 simulated screening outcomes for a population of 100 infected individuals.
These approaches would boost sensitivity of 344
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation.

Closer collaboration between local animal and human health authorities within the current epidemic disease prevention programmes will provide educational and training opportunities to promote risk-mitigation knowledge, skills and best practice in local communities.

Public education about rabies was reported as an example of a zoonotic disease prevention programme that had improved local awareness of the need for protective measures and postexposure treatment.
2020-02-12 Wu et al Facemask shortage and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Reflection on public health measures
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Travel advice and guidance of self-protection should also account for the potential medical resouce crisis in the epidemic areas.
2020-02-23 Zhu et al COVID-19 in Wuhan: Immediate Psychological Impact on 5062 Health Workers
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

6568 individuals were surveyed and 5281 individuals completed the online questionnaire.
Women (hazard ratio[HR], 1.31; P=0.032), years of working> 10 years (HR, 2.02; P<0.001), concomitant chronic diseases (HR, 1.51; P<0.001), history of mental disorders (HR, 3.27; P<0.001), and family members or relatives confirmed or suspected (HR, 1.23; P=0.030) were risk factors for stress, whereas care provided by hospital and department administrators(odds ratio [OR], 0.76; P=0.024) and full coverage of all departments with protective measures (OR, 0.69; P=0.004) were protective factors.
2020-02-23 Wang et al Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other The related investigations have potential implications for the prevention and control of COVID-19.
2020-02-23 Hou et al Public Exposure to Live Animals, Behavioural Change, and Support in Containment Measures in response to COVID-19 Outbreak: a population-based cross sectional survey in China
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Evidence is urgently needed to help policy makers understand public response to the outbreak and support for the containment measures, but no evidence available to date.
2020-02-26 Haider et al Passengers' destinations from China: low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
Epidemiol Infect
IV. Prevalence Study Closure of certain routes, targeted airport screening, risk communication, public awareness and targeted training and vigilance of health workers associated with the portals of entry of visitors to their countries will help mitigate the force of further spread of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-27 Reusken et al Authors’ response: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
Euro Surveill
IV. Other The readiness survey that we performed served the important purpose of mapping the initial response capacities in Europe and identifying barriers to diagnostic implementation.
2020-02-29 Rodríguez-Morales et al Going global – Travel and the 2019 novel coronavirus
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other The ECDC has developed multiple documents in response, including technical reports, statements, risk assessments, algorithms, among others, related to diagnosis, management, and prevention .
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other 16 Despite these challenges, health partners are increasingly able to document improved service coverage and impact.
2020-03-03 Zhang et al The Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on the Medical Treatment of Chinese Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD):A Multicenter Cross-section Study in the Context of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern
medrxiv
IV. Other Online consultation, medication delivery and psychological counselling are the greatest needs reported by patients and their families and could especially provide solutions for the management of low income children with CKD in remote rural areas in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic.

/2020 knowledge, relevant examinations for kidney diseases and medication, district and county-level hospitals could not meet their needs for medical treatment, revealing a problem related to a lack of diagnosis and treatment standards for CKD in basic pediatric departments.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Public health bodies and research institutions should continue to work together to continuously evaluate the situation, to address knowledge gaps and to assess the effectiveness of targeted interventions with new tests, treatments and vaccines as they are developed.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study They found language difficulties and intercultural understanding are barriers to properly accessing care and identified six key lessons for practices to facilitate health care access for Eritrean immigrants.
2020-03-05 Spiteri et al First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Additional research is needed to complement surveillance data to build knowledge on the infectious period, modes of transmission, basic and effective reproduction numbers, and effectiveness of prevention and case management options also in settings outside of China.
2020-03-06 Lai et al Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions for containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Other Our findings contribute to improved understanding of integrated NPI measures on COVID-19 containment and can help in tailoring control strategies across contexts.
2020-03-08 Mullins et al CORONAVIRUS IN PREGNANCY AND DELIVERY: RAPID REVIEW AND EXPERT CONSENSUS
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

A casecontrol study comparing 10 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women affected by SARS in Hong Kong reported 60% ICU admission and 40% CFR in the pregnant group compared with 17.5% and 0% in the non-pregnant group .
The RCPCH British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) presents opportunities for surveillance.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study highlighted the development need for relevant research methodologies, risk communication approaches, health data management strategies, practical health emergency study ethical guidelines, bridging global research capacity disparities, and infrastructure constraints, to ensure knowledge advancement in Health-EDRM.

Existing surveillance databases, new study tools, and innovation methodologies may help to identify population health risks and support Health-EDRM policy development.
2020-03-12 Wang et al Effects of Chinese strategies for controlling the diffusion and deterioration of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in China
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model These strategies supply experience and guidelines for other countries to control the COVID-19 epidemic.
2020-03-12 Meng et al Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine
Journal of Dental Research
IV. Other For dental practices and hospitals in areas that are (potentially) affected with COVID-19, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed.
2020-03-17 Adhikari et al Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review
Infect Dis Poverty
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

In China, 11 791 cases were confirmed and 17 988 cases were suspected in 34 provinces as of 24:00, 31 January 2020 (Fig.
A series of measures have been suggested to reduce nosocomial infection, including knowledge training for prevention and control, isolation, disinfection, classified protections at different degrees in infection areas, and protection of confirmed cases .
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 22 Analysis of other risk variables associated with tackling an infectious disease outbreak and managing health emergencies would benefit understanding of existing country capacities, including vulnerabilities due to socioeconomic conditions, comorbid conditions, and lack of health infrastructure, which we did not take into account.

21 Several factors affect the emergence and spread of an infectious disease outbreak within countries and between regions, including the strength of IHR capacities at the national and subnational levels, adherence to infection prevention and control measures, climate-related pressures, and the density of populations.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study The partnership has six work streams: laboratory diagnosis and subtyping; surveillance, including screening at points of entry and cross-border activities; infection prevention and control in healthcare facilities; clinical management of people with severe COVID-19; risk communication; and supply-chain management and stockpiles.
2020-03-20 Ahmadi et al Modeling and Forecasting Trend of COVID-19 Epidemic in Iran
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The top priorities in Iran are now circular and comprehensive efforts to conduct epidemiological studies and identification of all aspects of the disease (source of disease, reservoir, pathways, infectivity, incubation period, incidence and prevalence, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, herd immunity, causes, epidemic and pandemic pattern, primary and secondary attack rates, response time, time needed for isolation and quarantine, treatment regimens, vaccines and other prevention methods, disease surveillance and statistical reporting) and evidence-based interventions and epidemic control.
2020-03-21 Poole et al Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises
Int J Equity Health
IV. Other For example, limited public health, laboratory, and primary care services represent a barrier to testing.
2020-03-23 Chin et al Healthcare worker absenteeism, child care costs, and COVID-19 school closures: a simulation analysis
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We focus our analyses on households with children below age 13 -although children under the age of 5 do not attend school, daycare services would likely also be closed in the event of school closures.
10, 11 Furthermore, the costs of child care (which is the main barrier to finding child care) and the salaries of healthcare workers vary regionally, so the necessity of child care subsidization for healthcare workers could also vary regionally.
2020-03-24 Fessell et al Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Beyond: Micropractices for Burnout Prevention and Emotional Wellness
Journal of the American College of Radiology
IV. Other The need for effective strategies and tools is only increasing as both individuals and institutions navigate the current anxiety and uncertainty.
2020-03-24 Banerjee et al Estimating excess 1- year mortality from COVID-19 according to underlying conditions and age in England: a rapid analysis using NHS health records in 3.8 million adults
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We included 3,862,012 individuals aged ≥30 years: 1,957, 935 (50.7%) female, 3,331,280 (86.3%) ≤70 years (mean age 43.5 in male and females) and 530732 (13.7%) >70 years (mean age 78.1 in males and 80.2 in females) (Suppl Table 1 ).
An (incomplete) list includes statistical aspects (dynamic models, weekly rates of mortality, competing risks), public health aspects (regional variation, social deprivation and ethnicity), clinical aspects (including hospital and critical care admissions) and health service factors (including data on healthcare workers, and operational features).
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
03 Although not regulatory in scope, these guidelines support infection prevention and control (IP&C) professionals, health care organizations and health care providers in developing, implementing and evaluating IP&C policies, procedures and programs to improve the quality and safety of health care and patient outcomes.

All staff in a residential care facility should receive general education on policies, including the principles of infection prevention and control.

During outbreaks, information and education should be provided for residents and their families, and should include their specific condition, and practices necessary to reduce the risk of infection.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other In the United States, for example, persons of lower socioeconomic standing may not have access to all of the tools needed to overcome all perceived barriers to action.
2020-03-26 Zheng et al Recommendations and guidance for providing pharmaceutical care services during COVID-19 pandemic: A China perspective
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other Results Community pharmacy management teams shall support PC services by providing adequate supply of COVID-19 related medications and preventative products, following environment regulations, and providing sufficient staff trainings.
2020-03-26 Al-Quteimat et al SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help?
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study As essential members of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, ID pharmacists have the opportunity to support emerging pathogen-response and planning efforts.
2020-03-27 Lee et al Telehealth: Helping Your Patients and Practice Survive and Thrive During the COVID-19 Crisis with Rapid Quality Implementation
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
IV. Other Adherence to state regulations, 2 thorough clinical intake, clear and consistent video connectivity and images, documentation, patient education and transparency, care coordination, data security, and patient privacy should remain a top priority, even in times of crisis.
2020-03-29 Woolley et al Dilemma of Organ Donation in Transplantation and The COVID-19 Pandemic
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

One report of two cases of COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients in China suggested that the disease was manifest in a manner similar to that expected in the general population and did not progress into the hyperinflammation stage of the disease with recovery in both cases.
Similarly, resources for performing transplantation may not be available due to restrictions to travel, reduced availability of the healthcare work force, hospital capacity issues including constraints on intensive care units, and concerns driven by uncertainty of outcomes and consequent ability of recipients to provide informed consent when presented with poorly defined risk quantification.
2020-03-30 Wei et al Radiotherapy Workflow and Protection Procedures During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak: Experience of the Hubei Cancer Hospital in Wuhan, China
Radiotherapy and Oncology
IV. Other The training included learning the latest versions of "COVID-19 Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" and "COVID-19 Protection and Prevention Plan", hand hygiene, proper handling of PPE, disinfection policies and procedures, and quarantine/isolation policies.
2020-03-30 Burns et al Symptom-Based Isolation Policies: Evidence from a Mathematical Model of Outbreaks of Influenza and COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis We did not expect these policies to reduce the overall incidence because there would be many other opportunities to become infected.
2020-03-31 Cadogan et al On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists’ contribution during a public health crisis
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study through social distancing and self-isolation requirements), employment and access to healthcare services which will ultimately create new barriers to medication adherence.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other As governments tighten border controls and implement other measures in response to COVID-19, they need to consider the impacts on refugees and migrants and ensure that such actions do not prevent people from accessing safety, health-care services, and information.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
In the setting of a pandemic, the limited availability of resources (such as critical shortages of PPE) combined with the risk of potential exposure and spread of infection to patients and the availability of appropriate health care workers, often become the main drivers for provision of health care services.
2020-04-30 Zhai et al Mental health care for international Chinese students affected by the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other Second, counselling training clinics are essential assets because they present avenues for collaboration with university counselling centres to address pressing understaffing issues.
2020-05-31 Long et al Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?
European Journal of Radiology
IV. Prevalence Study

The gold standard for a final diagnosis was positivity of first or repeated rRT-PCR tests.. Amongst the 87 included cases, 36 patients were finally diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia.
The sensitivities of both tests were then compared.
2020-05-31 Coles et al International Guidelines on Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Clinical Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study By adopting these recommendations where RT is minimised and targeted to those with the highest risk of relevant breast recurrence, we aim to protect our patients and health care professionals from potential exposure to COVID-19 as well as reducing the workload for health care providers and/or infrastructure at the moments that resources face strain due to the pandemic.
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Levels of Evidence in Epidemiology
LevelRating Criteria
IEvidence obtained from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized, controlled trials
IIEvidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomized, controlled trial
III-1Evidence obtained from well-designed pseudorandomized controlled trials (without proper randomization)
III-2Evidence obtained from comparative studies with concurrent controls and allocation not randomized (cohort studies), case-control studies, or interrupted time series with a control group
III-3Evidence obtained from comparative studies with historical control, 2 or more single-arm studies, or interrupted time series without a parallel control group
IVEvidence obtained from descriptive case series, either before testing or before and after testing