What do we know about non-pharmaceutical interventions?

Table of Contents

1 Guidance on ways to scale up NPIs in a more coordinated way (e.g., establish funding, infrastructure and authorities to support real time, authoritative (qualified participants) collaboration with all states to gain consensus on consistent guidance and to mobilize resources to geographic areas where critical shortfalls are identified) to give us time to enhance our health care delivery system capacity to respond to an increase in cases.

1.0.0.1 Highlights

1.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Dunlop et al The coronavirus outbreak: the central role of primary care in emergency preparedness and response
BJGP open
IV. Other The SHOC coordinates information and responses through a network of WHO teams, member states, and partner organisations; providing advice, tracking cases, and monitoring essential resources in the field.
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study highlights that sensors installed in such locations have the potential to receive and distribute data in real-time to digital infrastructures within the network, and their interconnectedness in the network renders them extremely efficient in providing real-time updates on different issues.
2020-01-27 Nkengasong et al China’s response to a novel coronavirus stands in stark contrast to the 2002 SARS outbreak response
Nat Med
IV. Prevalence Study Thus, African countries need to be on the alert and strengthen their publichealth surveillance and laboratory systems, coordinated by functional national publichealth institutions, in order to better prepare to prevent, rapidly detect and control any eventual spread of the novel virus on the continent.
2020-02-19 Liu et al Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other These findings are important in enabling health authorities to allocate health resources and develop appropriate treatments for medical staff who have mental health problems.
2020-02-19 Yang et al Mental health services for older adults in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other Stakeholders and health policy makers should collaborate to resolve this barrier in order to provide high-quality, timely crisis psychological services to community-dwelling older adults.
2020-02-21 Fast et al Potential T-cell and B-cell Epitopes of 2019-nCoV
biorxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We obtained viral sequences associated with 321 68 patients from GISAID on Feb 1st 2020.
To address these incentive issues, 300 governments might provide greater funding support to create 301 vaccines against past and future outbreaks.
2020-02-23 Zhai et al From Isolation to Coordination: How Can Telemedicine Help Combat the COVID-19 Outbreak?
medrxiv
IV. Other The platform could aggregate COVID-19 patient records across 126 connected hospitals and rapidly expand to enable open collaborations with key stakeholders such as government authorities, research institutions and laboratories.
2020-02-23 Lu et al ACP risk grade: a simple mortality index for patients with confirmed or suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) during the early stage of outbreak in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

A total of 577 patients with at least one post-admission evaluation were included in the final analysis.
1, 7, 8 The Chinese government responded immediately and mobilized the whole country's health resources to deal with this public health emergency.
2020-02-28 Wang et al From Hendra to Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging zoonotic viruses
The Lancet
IV. Other Clear national and international guidelines are needed on how to achieve the right balance in the leadership provided by public health and research experts facing an outbreak of an EZV.
2020-02-29 Lee et al Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
Public Health
IV. Other c o m / l o c a t e / p u h e countries to offer and provide assistance to developing countries to help them bolster their defenses against this global threat.
2020-03-05 Wilder-Smith et al Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

On Feb 18, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published their data of the first 72 314 patients including 44 672 patients with confirmed COVID19.
Organisations such as the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and the Global Research Collaboration For Infectious Disease Preparedness, supported by the WHO Research Blueprint and its Global Coordinating Mechanism, were able to accelerate the outbreak response and rapidly initiate technical platforms for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.
2020-03-07 Baker et al Preparing for a Surge of Coronavirus Cases
The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
IV. Other As information and recommendations about COVID-19 continue to evolve, we want to emphasize our support of the CDC and other public health partners as the appropriate source of information and guidance for health care organizations and providers.

Last, our standards require health care organizations to have a plan for dealing with a surge of infectious patients.
2020-03-11 Chopra et al How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Hospitals and health systems must develop agile ways to transmit timely and critical information in times of crises.
2020-03-13 Remuzzi et al COVID-19 and Italy: what next?
The Lancet
IV. Other Our analysis might help political leaders and health authorities to allocate enough resources, including personnel, beds, and intensive care facilities, to manage the situation in the next few days and weeks.

1 Therefore, a coordinated global response is desperately needed to prepare health systems to meet this unprecedented challenge.

We hope that the present analysis will help political leaders and health authorities to move as quickly as they can to ensure that there are enough resources, including personnel, hospital beds, and intensive care facilities, for what is going to happen in the next few days and weeks.
2020-03-13 Rodriguez-Morales et al Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
I. Systematic Review

Our review included 19 studies that were published between January 1, 2020, and February 21, 2020, most of them from China and one from Australia (Table 1) , including a total of 2874 patients, ranging from a case series of 9 to a cross-sectional study of 1590 .
As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
2020-03-13 Qiao et al What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women?
The Lancet
IV. Other The roadmap is intended to enable scientists, researchers, and funders to coordinate and align
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study We found that countries varied widely in terms of their capacity to prevent, detect, and control outbreaks, with about half the countries reporting operational readiness capacities to respond to public health emergencies.

The COVID-19 outbreak requires a robust mechanism of collaboration and coordination at the global, national, and subnational levels to prevent, detect, and respond effectively.

During response, all types of resources must be mobilised in a timely manner (funds, human resources, and logistics).

Our findings show that many countries need support to achieve these capacities and increased support should be provided as a global priority action to strengthen health security.

Since the IHR came into force in 2007, countries have made substantial efforts to strengthen their capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies.
2020-03-19 Zhao et al A systematic approach is needed to contain COVID-19 globally
Science Bulletin
IV. Prevalence Study Secondly, governments of countries need to strive for a unified and equitable allocation of resources and to improve the efficiency of resource distribution through coordinated management.
2020-03-20 Guzzi et al Intensive Care Unit Resource Planning During COVID-19 Emergency at the Regional Level: the Italian case.
medrxiv
IV. Other The central government controls the distribution of resources and 97 services are arranged at a regional scale.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Fourth, national, regional, and international organisations need to cooperate and collaborate to optimise limited supplies, using a whole of government approach.
2020-03-21 Poole et al Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises
Int J Equity Health
IV. Other As the international community responds to SARS-CoV-2, public health authorities in humanitarian crises begin at a disadvantage to enact appropriate infection control to prevent transmission in healthcare settings, identify infectious cases, administer supportive care and novel treatments for the seriously ill, and trace contacts.
2020-03-23 Mareiniss et al The impending storm: COVID-19, pandemics and our overwhelmed emergency departments
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Other Currently, one of the federal government's strategies to deal with a J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f potentially overwhelming catastrophic disaster that outstrips resources is to engage in -crisis standards of care.‖ 8, 9 That is, if overwhelmed, the federal government has advised states to create guidelines for hospitals to allocate scarce resources to save the greatest number of lives.
2020-03-23 Nasab et al Bibliometric Analysis of Global Scientific Research on SARSCoV-2 (COVID-19)
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Furthermore, this study can provide 58 information for funding agencies to establish elated guidelines on Covid-19 research.
2020-03-24 Hoe GAN et al Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Safety and Health at Work
IV. Other Policies and infrastructure to support clear and timely communications will facilitate effective cascading of information to frontline staff, enabling their work and facilitating their interactions with the public .
2020-03-25 Nunez-Bajo et al Ultra-Low-Cost Integrated Silicon-based Transducer for On-Site, Genetic Detection of Pathogens
biorxiv
IV. Other We will also add capabilities to communicate with smartphones to have access to the cloud so that the result of each diagnostic test can be passed to health agencies remotely.
2020-03-27 Lee et al Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study 11 Other local authorities have established surge capacity and contingency plans, including strong links with healthcare facilities and national coordination bodies.
2020-03-27 Hsiang et al The Effect of Large-Scale Anti-Contagion Policies on the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We did not collect city level health outcomes recorded prior to January 24, 2020 in provinces that had fewer than ten confirmed cases at that date.
This allows the affected area to marshal emergency funds and resources as well as activate emergency legislation.
2020-03-27 Card et al UV Sterilization of Personal Protective Equipment with Idle Laboratory Biosafety Cabinets During the Covid-19 Pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Other Our results provide support to healthcare organizations looking for alternative methods to extend their reserves of PPE.
2020-03-30 O’Connell et al Midwives in a pandemic: A call for solidarity and compassion
Women and Birth
IV. Prevalence Study COVID-19 calls for a coming together, a blurring of traditional professional boundaries in ways that promote greater coordinated cooperation between all stakeholders.
2020-03-31 Liu et al Pay attention to situation of SARS-CoV-2 and TCM advantages in treatment of novel coronavirus infection
Chinese Herbal Medicines
IV. Prevalence Study

In clinical study, two mild and two severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients were given combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment, three of whom gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms.
WHO and governments should adopt a series of countermeasures, including strengthening cooperation and sharing of information between national health agencies and international organizations; humanitarian assistance to countries with insufficient medical resources; to speed up the research and development of vaccines and the approval of antiviral drugs; measures taken by states to reduce or suspend activities that cause public gatherings; and countries issue travel warnings according to the situation.
2020-03-31 Calton et al Telemedicine in the Time of Coronavirus
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other When resources allow, designate palliative care program administrative staff and/or volunteers to reach out to the "technological liaison" at least 1-2 days before the telemedicine visit to provide set-up instructions and perform a test run.
2020-03-31 Singer et al What is ahead for health policy and technology in the 2020s?
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Other To counter this, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has been funded to work jointly with the European Medicines Agency to provide Europe-wide information to vaccine-hesitant populations and respond to their concerns, and to provide toolkits for healthcare workers and public health experts to support their effort s to improve the uptake of immunization programmes .
2020-03-31 Olivia Li et al Preparedness among Ophthalmologists: During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ophthalmology
IV. Other 4 During this time of a global health emergency, rapid communication, international collaboration, and transparency are critical to better inform and adapt the guidance of precautionary measures when new evidence becomes available.
2020-03-31 Fausto et al Creating a Palliative Care Inpatient Response Plan for COVID19 – The UW Medicine Experience
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other We also specify that in a crisis capacity setting, telephonic support at all hours may provide additional palliative care capacity to provide coaching and symptom guidance to primary teams.
2020-03-31 Cadogan et al On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists’ contribution during a public health crisis
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study In restructuring existing health services to respond to the current public health crisis, it is important that governments, public health bodies and policy makers review existing services and make full use of any unrealised potential among community pharmacists and other frontline health service providers.
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other Ensure there is sufficient capacity in terms of infrastructure, human resources, materials and self-protective equipment to respond to the increase number of deaths.
2020-04-01 Abhari et al COVID-19 Epidemic in Switzerland: Growth Prediction and Containment Strategy Using Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
medrxiv
IV. Other The primary goal of public authorities is to manage the outbreak so as to avoid overwhelming the health care system, in addition to buy time in order to bring online more capacity and resources that can handle the current and potential future peaks in the demand for emergency services.
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model A well-coordinated, systematic and expeditious investigation by government strategists, policy makers, physicians and technical staff is required to understand the outbreaks and identify key points for implementing interventions.
2020-04-15 Musazzi et al New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
IV. Prevalence Study Considering such critical issues and the latest position papers of stakeholder associations (Various Associations, 2019a,b), the establishment of harmonized metrics to classify the impact of medicine shortage on the National Healthcare Systems is a mandatory step to enhance the cooperation among competent National Authorities of the European countries and to rationalize the efforts to mitigate them.

Single National points of contact (SPOC) have been created to facilitate sharing of the information about nationwide medicine shortages and the coordination of emergency plans among the competent National Authorities and the EMA.

Although the proposed definition was relevant only for Marketing Authorization Holders (MAHs) and Regulatory Authorities, it is the first step to promote the communication and the coordination among European pharmaceutical stakeholders, regulators and professionals working in the different National Healthcare Systems for improving their resilience to shortages.

For these products, more centralized coordination of the risk control strategies by the EMA and, consequently, a more efficient sharing of information among National Regulatory Authorities are needed to better mitigation of shortage impact at a national level and to fulfil the needs of all the patients.
2020-04-30 Kapata et al Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Increased governmental and donor investments are required to advance locally led, world-class public health work with surveillance, data and analytics capabilities and further expanding state-of-the-art laboratory capacities with more J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f trained personnel to sustain capacity to rapidly respond to outbreaks at their source.

2 Rapid design and execution of experiments to examine and compare NPIs currently being implemented. DHS Centers for Excellence could potentially be leveraged to conduct these experiments.

2.0.0.1 Highlights

2.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Zhang et al In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus
Journal of Integrative Medicine
IV. Other DZ conceived the study, participated in its design, coordination, and all the work processes.
2020 Schwartz et al Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from (Wuhan) Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections
Viruses
IV. Prevalence Study

A case-control study to determine the effects of SARS on pregnancy compared 10 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women with the infection at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Hong Kong .
On 31 December 2019, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) sent a rapid response team to Hubei to work alongside health personnel from the provincial and Wuhan city health departments to conduct an epidemiologic investigation.
2020-01-27 Nkengasong et al China’s response to a novel coronavirus stands in stark contrast to the 2002 SARS outbreak response
Nat Med
IV. Prevalence Study Thus, African countries need to be on the alert and strengthen their publichealth surveillance and laboratory systems, coordinated by functional national publichealth institutions, in order to better prepare to prevent, rapidly detect and control any eventual spread of the novel virus on the continent.
2020-02-11 Nishiura et al Initial Cluster of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections in Wuhan, China Is Consistent with Substantial Human-to-Human Transmission
J Clin Med
IV. Other conceived the study, and all authors participated in the study design.
2020-02-11 Zhu et al Spatially Explicit Modeling of 2019-nCoV Epidemic Trend based on Mobile Phone Data in Mainland China
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model These daily reported data were used to train and validate our epidemic model.
2020-02-12 Hébert-Dufresne et al Beyond R0: the importance of contact tracing when predicting epidemics
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Therefore, great care must be taken when using any of these tools to compare outbreaks or to inform current events with past data.
2020-02-16 Bhandari et al Solubility-Weighted Index: fast and accurate prediction of protein solubility
biorxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

AUC, Area Under the ROC Curve; ROC, Receiver Operating Characteristic; , arithmetic W mean of the weights of an amino acid residue optimised from 1,000 bootstrap samples in a cross-validation step.
These scores were used to compute the AUC scores for B training and test datasets.
2020-02-18 youbin et al Epidemic Situation of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China mainland
medrxiv
IV. Other Objective] Analyze the occurrence of novel coronavirus pneumonia(NCP) in China mainland, explore the epidemiological rules, and evaluate the effect of prevention and control.
2020-02-23 Wang et al Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other To prevent the spreading of COVID-19, the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) of many provinces have timely released the data of confirmed cases, which facilitate us to explore the epidemiological and statistical characteristics of patients with COVID-19, and to understand the current situation and characteristics of the epidemic.
2020-02-23 lei et al Clinical characteristics of 51 patients discharged from hospital with COVID-19 in Chongqing,China
medrxiv
IV. Other We try to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in non-Wuhan area,and explore its effective treatment.
2020-02-23 Zhu et al COVID-19 in Wuhan: Immediate Psychological Impact on 5062 Health Workers
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

6568 individuals were surveyed and 5281 individuals completed the online questionnaire.
Further studies are needed to improve and validate these models.
2020-02-25 Han et al Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: A brief perspective from the front line
Journal of Infection
II. Randomized Controlled Trial

24 The most common symptoms are fever (87.9%), fatigue (69.6%), dry cough (67.7%) and myalgia (34.8%), and these are accompanied with rhinobyon, rhinorrhoea, pharyngalgia and diarrhea in few patients 24 ( Table 1 ) of these patients were characterized by dyspnea and hypoxemia, which can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulation dysfunction, and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in one week.
14 , 15 Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine whether ACE2 targeting drugs would be effective for the treatment of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-27 Peng et al Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know
British Journal of Anaesthesia
IV. Prevalence Study

The median age of infected individuals is between 49 and 56 yr. 1 13 Children are rarely diagnosed with 2019-nCoV, a phenomenon that has not yet been explained.
Hospital infection prevention and control programmes aid with case identification through screening and testing, and they execute isolation infection prevention measures to ensure healthcare settings are safe from infection transmission.
2020-03-01 Xiang et al Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay and Colloidal Gold- Immunochromatographic Assay Kit for Detection of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) Causing an Outbreak of Pneumonia (COVID-19)
medrxiv
IV. Other METHODS: We collect two groups of cases diagnosed with COVID-19 for experiments.
2020-03-02 Zhu et al The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China
Glob Health Res Policy
IV. Prevalence Study Scientists all over the world need to understand COVID-19 and discover potentially effective antiviral treatments and vaccines; epidemiologists need to conduct intensive contact investigations; It is important to promote protection knowledge for the general public .
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
A team of professionals from the NHC and China CDC was sent to conduct field investigations and implement disease control and prevention measures.

On the other hand, it is the responsibility of doctors and scientists to evaluate the events to ascertain whether or not more effective management of the crisis could have been attained.
2020-03-03 Song et al An epidemiological forecast model and software assessing interventions on COVID-19 epidemic in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study This section aims to provide a demonstration of our software to analyze the current public COVID-19 data, through which users may understand the proposed methods.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study All EU/EEA countries evaluate that they have the laboratory capacity to detect cases .
2020-03-05 Hoffmann et al SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor
Cell
IV. Other The average of three independent experiments performed with triplicate samples is shown.
2020-03-06 Henry et al Preliminary epidemiological analysis on children and adolescents with novel coronavirus disease 2019 outside Hubei Province, China: an observational study utilizing crowdsourced data
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Results: A total of 82 patients were included.
Further efforts should be made to collect follow up data on patient outcomes.
2020-03-08 Oliveiros et al Role of temperature and humidity in the modulation of the doubling time of COVID-19 cases
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Figure 2 depicts the curves obtained for the provinces that at the first time point (23 td of January) had only one or two cases.
Since the objective of the study was to analyse the rate of spread, we decided to use periods of 12 and 15 days to determine it.
2020-03-13 Chen et al Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records
The Lancet
IV. Other Two study investigators (JG and XY) independently reviewed the data collection forms to verify data accuracy.
2020-03-16 Ye et al Environmental contamination of the SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare premises: An urgent call for protection for healthcare workers
medrxiv
IV. Other Design A field investigation was conducted to collect the surface swabs in various environments in the hospital and a laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
2020-03-17 Qiu et al Impacts of social and economic factors on the transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study January 2020, a number of stringent measures were already taken, which prevent researchers to ideally examine and compare a sub-sample period during which no strict policies was enforced.
2020-03-17 Pung et al Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

36 individuals were confirmed to have COVID-19, and these people were related to three local clusters, referred to as A (containing 11 people), B (consisting of 20 individuals), and C (comprising five people; figure 1 ).
Such surveillance systems are, therefore, important to identify cases in the commu nity who would be missed if the focus were only on travellers, and they have enabled prompt investigation and containment measures.
2020-03-17 Bedford et al COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Activities to accomplish these goals vary and are based on national risk assessments that many times include estimated numbers of patients requiring hospitalisation and availability of hospital beds and ventilation support.
2020-03-19 Zhao et al A systematic approach is needed to contain COVID-19 globally
Science Bulletin
IV. Prevalence Study Our purpose is to encourage countries to join forces to explore more effective measures to overcome the epidemic.
2020-03-19 Arshad Ali et al The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—An emerging global health threat
Journal of Infection and Public Health
III-3. Time Series Analysis

In 2002, a pandemic of SARS occurred endangering the lives of 8098 individuals with a mortality of 774 patients .
Dr. Ahmed supervised the execution of the entire project.
2020-03-19 Zhang et al SARS-CoV-2 turned positive in a discharged patient with COVID-19 arouses concern regarding the present standard for discharge
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Contributors: JFZ and TC designed the study, KY collected the data, HHY and JL analyzed the data, JFZ and JJZ wrote this article.
2020-03-20 Amrane et al Rapid viral diagnosis and ambulatory management of suspected COVID-19 cases presenting at the infectious diseases referral hospital in Marseille, France, - January 31st to March 1st, 2020: A respiratory virus snapshot
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other In the United States, the CDC has decided to mobilise state and local departments in order to obtain collections of clinical and epidemiologic data that describe the characteristics of persons tested for COVID-19 and to decrease the risk of global dissemination .
2020-03-20 song et al Advance of Novel Coronavirus Registration Clinical Trial
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study 1101 /2020 can provide real-time guidance for preventing and controlling the epidemic, assessing development trends and the effects of intervention measures .COVID-19's "war epidemic" and "epidemic prevention" strategies are closely related to the important measure of improving the transparency of clinical trials, including sharing of the subject's original data and standardizing trial design, registration, and implementation .
2020-03-23 Wen et al Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, the largest migrant city of China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

In total, there were 29 (7.0%) pediatric patients aged below 15 years, of whom 26 were identified by surveillance and 28 were cases from clusters.
Our results can be used to improve the prediction of transmission risk, design and implementation of intervention measures and strategies, and assessments of intervention effectiveness in similar settings.
2020-03-23 zhang et al Potential Factors for Prediction of Disease Severity of COVID-19 Patients
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Results: A total of 43 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, including 29 mild patients and 14 sever patients.
All data were checked independently by two researchers to ascertain the accuracy.
2020-03-24 Wigginton et al Environmental Engineers and Scientists Have Important Roles to Play in Stemming Outbreaks and Pandemics Caused by Enveloped Viruses
Environ Sci Technol
IV. Other Future studies on enveloped viruses should seek to carefully characterize and even standardize the conditions under which measurements are conducted.
2020-03-24 Luo et al Management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Further research is needed to assess the risk and to produce guidelines for delivery times and methods in patients with COVID-19.
2020-03-26 Al-Quteimat et al SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help?
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study The ID pharmacist can coordinate with the microbiology laboratory for the interpretation of, and action involving, COVID-19 test results, monitor compliance with institutional guidelines, prepare and implement local treatment protocols, monitor and manage drug shortages and help in investigations of new drug applications and uses.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
Expert consultation is suggested to address: the cause, organize testing for NI resistance, and to assess the possible need to possibly switch to another NI.
2020-03-27 Abraham et al Heart Failure Collaboratory Statement on Clinical Trials in the Landscape of COVID-19
JACC: Heart Failure
IV. Prevalence Study Statistical monitoring methods should be considered that can remotely evaluate trial safety and conduct.
2020-03-27 Liebig et al The current state of COVID-19 in Australia: importation and spread
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The outbreak has quickly spread to more than 100 countries reporting over 100,000 confirmed cases.
JL conceived the study and performed the analysis.
2020-03-29 Alfano et al Non-invasive surveys of mammalian viruses using environmental DNA
biorxiv
IV. Other Three different approaches (A, B, C) were used to analyse the viral capture data:
2020-03-29 Li et al Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspective
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

Analysis of the first 99 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV2 infection revealed that cytokine storm syndromes occurred in patients with severe COVID-19 and 17 (17%) had ARDS and, among them, 11 (11%) patients deteriorated within a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure .
Intensive research on the newly emerged COVID-19 is urgently needed to elucidate their pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics, and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study These models enable epidemiologists and health authorities to understand the transmission process, predict its impact on healthy populations, and assess the effectiveness of different mitigation and prevention strategies.
2020-03-30 Buhat et al A mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission between frontliners and the general public
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model We examine the model simulations and perform sensitivity analysis to determine which parameters are influential to the model output.
2020-03-31 Singer et al A new pandemic out of China: the Wuhan 2019-nCoV coronavirus syndrome
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Prevalence Study

Complications in the initial 41 patients reported from Wuhan up to 2nd January 2020 included acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury and secondary infection .
No outbreaks of Zika infection are currently flagged by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
2020-03-31 Bukhari et al The diagnostic evaluation of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the assessment of chest X-ray of patients infected with COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other The organization and collection of the data of patient of COVID -19 from different countries of world may be planned and subjected to research for further improvement in the diagnostic modalities.
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model A well-coordinated, systematic and expeditious investigation by government strategists, policy makers, physicians and technical staff is required to understand the outbreaks and identify key points for implementing interventions.

Extensive planning to allocate the resources for management of cases, measures like quarantine and social distancing and simultaneously building capacity for innovative approaches to arrange for testing kits should be executed in the initial stages of the epidemic.
2020-04-01 Vogels et al Analytical sensitivity and efficiency comparisons of SARS-COV-2 qRT-PCR assays
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Our goal in this study was to directly compare the designed primer-probe sets, not the assays per se , as that would involve many different variables.

Our findings characterize the limitations of commonly used primer-probe sets and can assist other laboratories in selecting appropriate assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.

3 Rapid assessment of the likely efficacy of school closures, travel bans, bans on mass gatherings of various sizes, and other social distancing approaches.

3.0.0.1 Highlights

3.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Nordling et al ‘A ticking time bomb’: Scientists worry about coronavirus spread in Africa
Science
IV. Other “Never before in the history of our democracy have we been confronted by such a severe situation,” Ramaphosa said before announcing a raft of measures to curb the virus’ spread, including school closures, travel restrictions, and bans on large gatherings.
2020-01-28 Ming et al Breaking down of the healthcare system: Mathematical modelling for controlling the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan, China
biorxiv
IV. Computer Model Earlier studies on the effectiveness of spread control measures during infectious disease pandemic showed large-scale strategies, such as closure of school closure, case isolation, household quarantine, internal travel restrictions and border control, were able to delay the spread and/or reduce incidence rate at certain periods through the outbreak season.
2020-02-13 Cowling et al Epidemiological research priorities for public health control of the ongoing global novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak
Euro Surveill
IV. Other A number of social distancing measures have already been implemented in Chinese cities in the past few weeks including school and workplace closures.
2020-02-27 Peng et al Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know
British Journal of Anaesthesia
IV. Prevalence Study

The median age of infected individuals is between 49 and 56 yr. 1 13 Children are rarely diagnosed with 2019-nCoV, a phenomenon that has not yet been explained.
Extensive control measures were put into place, starting with massive decontamination efforts and, ultimately, closure of the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, banning the trade of wildlife and poultry in wet markets, contact tracing of cases, exit screening at airports, lockdown and quarantine measures that progressed to include adjacent cities (an estimated 50e60 million people affected), school closures, extension of the Lunar New Year holiday, prohibition of mass gatherings, and building of two new hospitals (1000 and 1600 beds) to care for infected individuals.
2020-02-28 Moberly et al Covid-19: school closures and bans on mass gatherings will need to be considered, says England's CMO
BMJ
IV. Other Covid-19: school closures and bans on mass gatherings will need to be considered, says England's CMO
2020-03-05 Wilder-Smith et al Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

On Feb 18, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published their data of the first 72 314 patients including 44 672 patients with confirmed COVID19.
The stringent control measures included school closures and closures of all universities and public places, as well as the cancellation of the public holiday in May.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Countries may consider the implementation of social distancing measures such as cancellation of conferences, cultural or sport events or the recommendation of teleworking or school closures in order to slow transmission of the virus.
2020-03-06 Riou et al Adjusted age-specific case fatality ratio during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei, China, January and February 2020
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The model estimates that a total of 82,300 individuals (95%CrI: 73,000-91,800) were infected in Hubei between 1 January and 11 February 2020.
On 20 January 2020, Chinese authorities implemented extensive control measures in Hubei: early identification and isolation of clinical cases, tracing and quarantining of contacts, temperature checks before accessing public areas, extension of the lunar new year holiday period, and extreme social distancing, including cancellation of mass gatherings .
2020-03-06 Lai et al Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions for containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Other The containment strategy of integrated nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including travel bans and restrictions, contact reductions and social distancing, early case identification and isolation have been rapidly deloyed across China to contain the outbreak, and the combination of these interventions appears to be effective.

11 As part of these social distancing policies, Chinese government encouraged people to stay at home as much as possible, cancelled or postponed large public events and mass gatherings, and closed libraries, museums, and workplaces.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Evolving Epidemiology and Impact of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions on the Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Other social distancing measures were also implemented, including compulsory mask-wearing in public places and cancellation of social gathering.
2020-03-08 Peak et al Modeling the Comparative Impact of Individual Quarantine vs. Active Monitoring of Contacts for the Mitigation of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

15 For the shorter serial interval scenario 1, the median incremental benefit of individual quarantine over active monitoring is much larger at 0.93, corresponding to a need to quarantine 1.1 infected contacts to prevent one secondary infection on average; though, if only 0.04% of traced contacts are infected, nearly 2,500 individuals need to be quarantined to prevent one secondary infection relative to active monitoring.
3 In China, policies include unprecedented lockdowns to reduce contacts between individuals, travel restrictions, and door-to-door temperature checks with mandatory mass quarantine.
2020-03-12 Costantino et al The effectiveness of full and partial travel bans against COVID-19 spread in Australia for travellers from China.
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Travel bans and social distancing measures are effective public health tools to control epidemic diseases , and Australia successfully delayed the introduction of the 1918 pandemic by 1 year and reduced the total mortality compared to other countries .
2020-03-12 Prem et al The effect of control strategies that reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other In the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, social distancing measures including but not limited to school and workplace closures and health promotions that encourage the general public to avoid crowded places are designed to drastically shift social mixing patterns and are often used in epidemic settings.

Extreme social distancing measures, including school closures, workplace closures, and avoiding any public gatherings all at once, can push the transmission to households leading to increased clustering in .

11 Models assessing the effectiveness of social distancing interventions, such as school closure, need to account for social structures and heterogeneities in mixing of individuals.
2020-03-13 Bayham et al The Impact of School Closure for COVID-19 on the US Healthcare Workforce and the Net Mortality Effects
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

10 We use the recent dataset, which includes information on just over 3 million individuals spread across 1.25 million households between January 2018-2020.
Social distancing, including school closures, can limit COVID-19 cases.

Background COVID-19 is leading to the implementation of social distancing policies around the world and in the United States, including school closures.
2020-03-13 Jombart et al Inferring the number of COVID-19 cases from recently reported deaths
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis In such situations, efforts focusing on social distancing measures such as school closures and self-isolation may be more likely to mitigate epidemic spread.
2020-03-16 Teslya et al Impact of self-imposed prevention measures and short-term government intervention on mitigating and delaying a COVID-19 epidemic
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Short-term government-imposed social distancing 160 Governments may decide to promote social distancing policies through interventions such as school and workplace 161 closures or by issuing a ban on large gatherings.
2020-03-19 Arshad Ali et al The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—An emerging global health threat
Journal of Infection and Public Health
III-3. Time Series Analysis

In 2002, a pandemic of SARS occurred endangering the lives of 8098 individuals with a mortality of 774 patients .
Therefore, counter-measures like school shutdown, exit screenings, and dissolution of mass gatherings are necessary .
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
As such, there is a question as to whether other public health measures that prevent the need to impose quarantine (such as social distancing, cancellation of mass gatherings, and school closures) might be more favourable.
2020-03-20 Escher et al An Ounce of Prevention: Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Mass Gatherings
PMC
IV. Prevalence Study Governments have been hesitant in their response with border and school closures, bans on public gatherings, and screening of passengers at transportation hubs.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Community level interventions include strategies such as contact tracing and quarantine, business and school closure, and restricting mass public gatherings.
2020-03-23 Lewnard et al Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study However, the scale and disruptive impact of these interventions were small compared with the measures that have been implemented in China in response to COVID-19, including closure of schools, workplaces, roads, and transit systems; cancellation of public gatherings; mandatory quarantine of uninfected people without known exposure to SARS-CoV-2; and largescale electronic surveillance.
2020-03-25 Prem et al The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

Each simulation started with 200 or 2000 infectious individuals I 0 , 15 with the rest of the population being in the susceptible state.
11 Models that assess the effectiveness of physical distancing interventions, such as school closure, need to account for social structures and heterogeneities in mixing of individuals.
2020-03-26 FANG et al Human Mobility Restrictions and the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The NPIs they consider include travel bans and restrictions, contact reductions and social distancing, early case identification and isolation.
2020-03-26 Tuite et al Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study These social distancing measures include some combination of school closure, teleworking, cancellation of group activities and events, and a general overall reduction in community contacts.
2020-03-26 Menkir et al Estimating the number of undetected COVID-19 cases exported internationally from all of China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

For each province, we calculate the median number of prevalent cases by day using 1000 posterior samples of new infections per day estimated by Hay et al.
1 Rigorous measures to curtail the spread of COVID-19 including travel restrictions and school and workplace closures, have largely controlled the outbreak in mainland China.
2020-03-27 Adekunle et al Delaying the COVID-19 epidemic in Australia: Evaluating the effectiveness of international travel bans
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study We also showed that travel bans from Hubei Province alone would have been much less effective, as the virus had already spread to many other provinces by the time the bans were enforced.
2020-03-27 Hsiang et al The Effect of Large-Scale Anti-Contagion Policies on the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We did not collect city level health outcomes recorded prior to January 24, 2020 in provinces that had fewer than ten confirmed cases at that date.
Other schools, cities, and départements followed suit with additional school closures and limiting mass gatherings.

Some regions have implemented school closures at both the K-12 and higher education level.

For example, restrictions imposed on businesses are increasing unemployment, 19 travel bans are bankrupting airlines, 20 and school closures may have enduring impacts on affected students.
2020-03-27 Skums et al Global transmission network of SARS-CoV-2: from outbreak to pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study To combat the spread of the virus, in the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments, an increasing number of nations are putting in place social distancing interventions ranging from school closures, quarantine orders on segments of the population, and banning large public gatherings.
2020-03-27 Kamikubo et al Epidemiological Tools that Predict Partial Herd Immunity to SARS Coronavirus 2
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Detection of "S type SARS-CoV-2 herd immunity" might also help schedule a timing to lift travel restrictions, event restraints, closure of schools, social distancing, and contact precautions.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Some less drastic, but quite effective and more frequently used measures of social distancing include canceling mass gatherings, school, and workplace closures, travel restrictions, etc.

When infectious disease outbreaks, various countries adopt public health intervention policies, in which one is to control human contacts, such as isolation, quarantine, and social distancing; the other is to control population mobility, such as travel restrictions.
2020-03-30 Burns et al Symptom-Based Isolation Policies: Evidence from a Mathematical Model of Outbreaks of Influenza and COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis Non-pharmaceutical intervention policies such as community quarantines, closures and travel bans are often implemented in emergencies but many of them are disruptive and difficult to maintain for extended periods of time.

Several studies also modeled non-pharmaceutical interventions such as closures but not absenteeism policies [19, ).
2020-03-30 Deng et al A Genomic Survey of SARS-CoV-2 Reveals Multiple Introductions into Northern California without a Predominant Lineage
medrxiv
IV. Other Rapid testing and contact tracing, social distancing, and travel restrictions are measures that will help to slow SARS-CoV-2 spread in California and other regions of the USA.
2020-03-30 Carleton et al Causal empirical estimates suggest COVID-19 transmission rates are highly seasonal
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Each line represents a time series of seasonal projections of new cases of COVID-19 per 1 million individuals for each country and every month between April 2020 and January 2021; Northern Hemisphere countries are in orange and Southern hemisphere countries are in blue, with solid lines indicating hemisphere average effects.
It is possible that the effect of temperature on case rates varies across different policy regimes, such as social distancing and the closure of public transportation systems.
2020-03-31 Li et al The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future
Microbes and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

11 January 2020 41 patients have been diagnosed to have infection of the novel coronavirus, with 763 close contacts, 7 severe cases and the first death.
In addition, many other compulsory measures limiting population mobility, such as cancellation of mass gatherings, school closures, work-from-home arrangements, was taken to reduce withinpopulation contact rates.
2020-03-31 Adolph et al Pandemic Politics: Timing State-Level Social Distancing Responses to COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

To show just how small this effect is, we compare a state with just four confirmed cases (the median among all state-days in our study period) to a state with 426 cases (the 95th percentile).
Baseline hazards are stratified across the five pooled social distancing measures: recommendations and restrictions on gatherings, school closures, restaurant restrictions, non-essential business closures, and stay-at-home orders.
2020-04-01 Shlomai et al Global versus focused isolation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic-A cost-effectiveness analysis
medrxiv
IV. Other Following China, many countries around the world have adopted social distancing measures largely based on quarantine and travel bans, as well as on isolation of infected patients and their close contacts .
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model These lockdowns followed a slew of increasingly strict social distancing measures such as cancellation of sporting events, suspension of classes, limitation of public gatherings to size 50, and closure of bars, discotheques and other entertainment venues.

Such interventions include adopting hygienic measures, social distancing, travel restrictions, quarantine and case isolation.

A mathematical analysis of the consequences of public health policy is Reference which predicts the effects of various kinds of social distancing measures such as school closures and social isolation of the high-risk senior citizens.
2020-04-01 Patterson-Lomba et al Optimal timing for social distancing during an epidemic
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Examples of social distancing include closing of schools, non-essential workplace closures, and avoiding large gatherings (i.e.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study The direct costs of COVID-19 travel bans, social distancing, and other responses are merely one aspect.

Travel bans have since been imposed and screening, testing, mandatory quarantine practices are in place.

4 Methods to control the spread in communities, barriers to compliance and how these vary among different populations..

4.0.0.1 Highlights

4.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Cao et al Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations
Cell Discovery
IV. Prevalence Study Taken together, the differences in AFs of ACE2 coding variants among different populations suggested that the diverse genetic basis might affect ACE2 functions among populations.

The AFs of the 15 eQTL variants were compared among different populations.

Our analysis showed the differences in distribution and AFs of eQTLs for ACE2 in different populations, indicating the diversity of ACE2 expression pattern in populations (Supplementary Table S3 ).
2020 Daszak et al A strategy to prevent future pandemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak
Biosafety and Health
IV. Prevalence Study Surveillance programs can be designed by local public health authorities to identify communities living in regions with high wildlife diversity and likely high diversity of novel viruses .
2020-02-11 Blumberg et al Assessing the plausibility of subcritical transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States
medrxiv
IV. Other Variation in climate, population density, demographics, social interactions, health care access and public health interventions can all affect transmission.
2020-02-11 Cai et al Bulk and single-cell transcriptomics identify tobacco-use disparity in lung gene expression of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCov
medrxiv
IV. Other 1, 2 We believe that the susceptibility to the novel 2019-nCov is also different among population groups.
2020-02-17 Li et al Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model New travel restrictions and control measures are being imposed on new populations in different cities, and these rapidly varying effects make certain estimation of the epidemiological characteristics for the outbreak difficult.
2020-02-19 Klepac et al Contacts in context: large-scale setting-specific social mixing matrices from the BBC Pandemic project
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The main dataset used in this study consisted of 36,155 participants reporting 378,559 contacts.
The measured age-specific social mixing matrices also varied considerably between different types and settings.
2020-02-20 Ding et al Association of Population Migration and Coronavirus Disease 2019 Epidemic Control
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study There were different patterns of disease spread in the two cities, driven by different patterns of population migration.

Different patterns of disease spread were observed in the two cities, driven by different patterns of population migration.
2020-02-20 Zhan et al Modeling and Prediction of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Spreading in China Incorporating Human Migration Data
medrxiv
IV. Other the recovery rates in different cities are assumed to be different due to varied quality of treatments and availability of medical facilities;
2020-02-24 Gostic et al Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19
eLife
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Depending on the screening strategy (arrival, departure or both) and assumed subclinical fraction (5%, 25%, or 50%), the probability of detecting at least the first two cases ranged from 0.02 to 0.11, and the probability of detecting three or more cases was never better than 0.04 ( Figure 3C ).
Yet the quantitative performance of different policies matters for planning interventions and will influence how public health authorities prioritize different measures as the international and domestic context changes.
2020-02-27 Ying et al Spread and control of COVID-19 in China and their associations with population movement, public health emergency measures, and medical resources
medrxiv
IV. Other We found although daily growth rate varied among different provincial 163 areas, some of them had common characteristics (Fig.
2020-03-02 Basu et al Strategies for vaccine design for corona virus using Immunoinformatics techniques
biorxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

From InterPro database, 78 homologous protein sequences are recovered for nonstructural protein NS4 protein for coronavirus as shown in Table 1 .
This distribution varies among the human population according to the population in different geographic regions of the world.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study examined the health beliefs and practices of Gypsies and Travelers in the UK, where these communities experience significant marginalization and discrimination.
2020-03-05 Xiao et al Taking the right measures to control COVID-19
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study 6 Similarly, in community prevention and control of the disease, the measures taken by individual villages and communities to seal off roads are of no value.
2020-03-08 Oliveiros et al Role of temperature and humidity in the modulation of the doubling time of COVID-19 cases
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Figure 2 depicts the curves obtained for the provinces that at the first time point (23 td of January) had only one or two cases.
Those variables explain 18% of the variation in disease doubling time; the remaining 82% may be related to containment measures, general health policies, population density, transportation or cultural aspects.
2020-03-16 Shi et al Immunopathological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 cases in Guangzhou, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Increased serum IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1A, and TNFα were observed in COVID-19 patients 8 .
The severity of COVID-19 varies among individual patients during the same outbreak and among patient groups during different outbreaks in different regions.
2020-03-17 Hossain et al The effects of border control and quarantine measures on global spread of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model It is hypothesized that the rate of transmission between different cities or countries is 269 related to the number of people moving from different locations to Wuhan.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 21 Several factors affect the emergence and spread of an infectious disease outbreak within countries and between regions, including the strength of IHR capacities at the national and subnational levels, adherence to infection prevention and control measures, climate-related pressures, and the density of populations.
2020-03-18 Choe et al Coronavirus disease-19: The First 7,755 Cases in the Republic of Korea
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We report the first 7,755 patients with confirmed COVID19 in Korea as of March 13, 2020.
As of March 13, 2020, 118 countries, territories, and areas have reported COVID-19 cases, however, differences in patterns and intensity of transmission ranging were observed .
2020-03-20 Magdon-Ismail et al Machine Learning the Phenomenology of COVID-19 From Early Infection Dynamics
medrxiv
IV. Other The different countries have different cultures, social networks, mobility, demographics, as well as different times at which the first infection was reported (the "delay").
2020-03-20 Vardavas et al COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence
Tob Induc Dis
I. Systematic Review

A total of 71 studies were retrieved through the search, of which 66 were excluded after full-text screening, leaving five studies that were included.
The populations in all studies were patients with COVID-19, and the sample size ranged from 41 to 1099 patients.
2020-03-20 Rossman et al A framework for identifying regional outbreak and spread of COVID-19 from one-minute population-wide surveys
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

To this date, March 21st, 18pm, there have been 54,059 responses, including 50,572 (93.55%) adults and 3,488 (6.45%) children.
strategies depend on many factors, including the local spread of COVID-19, healthcare system resources, economical and political factors, public adherence and their perception of the situation.
2020-03-20 Wenham et al COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other 13 If the response to disease outbreaks such as COVID-19 is to be effective and not reproduce or perpetuate gender and health inequities, it is important that gender norms, roles, and relations that influence women's and men's differential vulnerability to infection, exposure to pathogens, and treatment received, as well as how these may differ among different groups of women and men, are considered and addressed.
2020-03-23 Milne et al The Effectiveness of Social Distancing in Mitigating COVID-19 Spread: a modelling analysis
medrxiv
IV. Other 5, 6 Methods A community-based simulation model capturing the demographics and movement patterns of individuals in an Australian city, with the virus transmission characteristics of COVID-19, was used to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a range of social distancing strategies.
2020-03-24 Banerjee et al Estimating excess 1- year mortality from COVID-19 according to underlying conditions and age in England: a rapid analysis using NHS health records in 3.8 million adults
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We included 3,862,012 individuals aged ≥30 years: 1,957, 935 (50.7%) female, 3,331,280 (86.3%) ≤70 years (mean age 43.5 in male and females) and 530732 (13.7%) >70 years (mean age 78.1 in males and 80.2 in females) (Suppl Table 1 ).
However, we researchers can use the estimate that we provide to allow modelling of such interactions in different subgroups within populations.
2020-03-25 Prem et al The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

Each simulation started with 200 or 2000 infectious individuals I 0 , 15 with the rest of the population being in the susceptible state.
Social mixing patterns vary across locations, including households, workplaces, schools, and other locations.
2020-03-25 Ren et al EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HEART TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS DURING THE 2019 CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK IN WUHAN, CHINA: A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY REPORT
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
IV. Prevalence Study

There are 63 men and 24 women, average age is 51±12 years, 80 (92.0%) of them lived together with relatives, the number of relatives ranged from 1 to 8.
96.6% of the families and communities undertook prevention and quarantine procedures.
2020-03-25 Su et al The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China – the character of children with COVID-19
Emerg Microbes Infect
IV. Other As we know, the distribution of ACE2 receptors in different organs and populations is different.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other Persons of differing ethnic backgrounds may react differently to calls for social distancingdue to varying cultural attitudes and norms regarding interpersonal interactions.
2020-03-27 Dudley et al Disparities in Age-Specific Morbidity and Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 in China and the Republic of Korea
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis The available epidemiological and observational data from the ROK suggests that reduced rates of compliance with social distancing and self-quarantine recommendations among different sectors of the population -especially the younger adult and juvenile age cohorts --may have a significant impact on the age-specific rates of morbidity and mortality within the population as a whole.
2020-03-27 Liebig et al The current state of COVID-19 in Australia: importation and spread
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The outbreak has quickly spread to more than 100 countries reporting over 100,000 confirmed cases.
Such seasonal patterns can help authorities plan for travel policies that consider the varying risk of COVID-19 importations into Australia over time from different countries.
2020-03-30 Carleton et al Causal empirical estimates suggest COVID-19 transmission rates are highly seasonal
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Each line represents a time series of seasonal projections of new cases of COVID-19 per 1 million individuals for each country and every month between April 2020 and January 2021; Northern Hemisphere countries are in orange and Southern hemisphere countries are in blue, with solid lines indicating hemisphere average effects.
Our statistical approach separates effects of climate variation on COVID-19 transmission from other potentially correlated factors, such as differences in public health responses across countries and heterogeneous population densities.

It is possible that the effect of temperature on case rates varies across different policy regimes, such as social distancing and the closure of public transportation systems.
2020-03-30 Wang et al Genetic Profiles in Pharmacogenes Indicate Personalized Drug Therapy for COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

As many as 16 clinical trials related to chloroquine, and two clinical trials for mild and common patients and severe patients will be completed on April 30, 2020 (ChiCTR2000029898, ChiCTR2000029899), each clinical trial includes a total of 100 participants.
Their distributions in different populations in the world are also not indicated.
2020-03-30 Kang et al Impact on Mental Health and Perceptions of Psychological Care among Medical and Nursing Staff in Wuhan during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

In total, 994 participants, including 183 (18.4%) doctors and 811 (81.6%) nurses, completed the survey.
For medical and nursing staff, exposure to people around them who were infected varied among the different groups.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Measures, whether traffic control or social distancing, are aiming to reduce physical contact between people, and in cities with smaller populations, the contact there is already less than in high-density cities, so the effects of those measures fail in low-population cities.
2020-03-31 Xu et al Genetic diversity and potential recombination between ferret coronaviruses from European and American lineages
Journal of Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

The series included 47 patients, of whom 15 were taking antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of meningococcal disease onset and 32 were not ( Table 1 ).
Relatively low detection rates have even been reported in studies conducted in other geographical areas, such as Gansu Province in China, 6 The discrepancies in the influenza detection rates among patients with ILI from different areas highlighted the geographical differences in virus burdens.
2020-03-31 Wang et al Emergence of SARS-like coronavirus poses new challenge in China
Journal of Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

The series included 47 patients, of whom 15 were taking antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of meningococcal disease onset and 32 were not ( Table 1 ).
Relatively low detection rates have even been reported in studies conducted in other geographical areas, such as Gansu Province in China, 6 The discrepancies in the influenza detection rates among patients with ILI from different areas highlighted the geographical differences in virus burdens.
2020-03-31 Haixu et al Detection of 20 respiratory viruses and bacteria by influenza-like illness surveillance in Beijing, China, 2016–2018
Journal of Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

The series included 47 patients, of whom 15 were taking antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of meningococcal disease onset and 32 were not ( Table 1 ).
Relatively low detection rates have even been reported in studies conducted in other geographical areas, such as Gansu Province in China, 6 The discrepancies in the influenza detection rates among patients with ILI from different areas highlighted the geographical differences in virus burdens.
2020-03-31 Tang et al Emergence of a novel coronavirus causing respiratory illness from Wuhan, China
Journal of Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

The series included 47 patients, of whom 15 were taking antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of meningococcal disease onset and 32 were not ( Table 1 ).
Relatively low detection rates have even been reported in studies conducted in other geographical areas, such as Gansu Province in China, 6 The discrepancies in the influenza detection rates among patients with ILI from different areas highlighted the geographical differences in virus burdens.
2020-04-01 Rossberg et al How will this continue? Modelling interactions between the COVID-19 pandemic and policy responses
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We seeded the model with 10 asymptomatic early stage individuals, i.e., we start with S = N -10, I s1 = 10, I a1 = 10, I s2 = 0, I a2 = 0, using Italic symbols to represent population numbers in corresponding stages.
These will all vary between nations and so the degree of initial compliance and the rate of decline of compliance over time will vary and thus it is important to explore the potential impacts of this heterogeneity on the development of the epidemic.

Compliance with these interventions will vary between individuals depending on a wide variety of factors, and because of the restrictive nature of the interventions it is likely that compliance will decay over time, especially if the public perception is that the risk is low or the epidemic is declining.
2020-04-01 He et al COVID-19, City Lockdown, and Air Pollution: Evidence from China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study As the disease prevalence varied greatly across different regions, the terms and requirements of city lockdown also differed across provinces and cities.

Since the risk of disease transmission differed substantially across different locations and different periods, the timing of lockdown also varied.

We find that the effect of lockdown varies significantly across different types of cities.
2020-04-01 Zhu et al Transmission Dynamics and Control Methodology of COVID-19: a Modeling Study
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

3) , there are no more than 5 new cases every day from Dec 8 to Dec 28.
In addition, the models fail to consider the difference of contact rate between in communities and in hospitals.
2020-05-31 Chen et al High-resolution computed tomography manifestations of COVID-19 infections in patients of different ages
European Journal of Radiology
IV. Prevalence Study

In this study, we analyzed the HRCT lung manifestations and related signs in 98 patients of different ages.
The density characteristics of the lesions were not significantly different between groups A and B, and between groups C and D (P > 0.05).
2020-07-31 Artika et al Pathogenic viruses: Molecular detection and characterization
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
IV. Prevalence Study These include changes of the pathogens through evolution, changes in the way human populations interact with each other, and with their environment.

5 Models of potential interventions to predict costs and benefits that take account of such factors as race, income, disability, age, geographic location, immigration status, housing status, employment status, and health insurance status.

5.0.0.1 Highlights

5.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Kui et al Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province
Chin Med J (Engl)
IV. Prevalence Study

In addition, none of the 137 patients included in this study had a clear history of exposure to Wuhan Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, suggesting that the virus is capable of secondary or tertiary transmission.
Basic information (age, gender, smoking history, and comorbidities) was collected for each patient.
2020 Xu et al Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
Viruses
IV. Prevalence Study

Among the 8,866 patients who have been confirmed with COVID-19, nearly half of the patients have been aged 50 years or older (47.7%) .
According to the demographic information of SARS patients, infection occurred in all age groups (the average age was dyspnea (40.8%), and diarrhea (31.6%) , and the prognosis of patients was associated with host characteristics (including age, gender, etc.)
2020-02-02 Zhang et al Transmission and epidemiological characteristics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected Pneumonia (COVID-19): preliminary evidence obtained in comparison with 2003-SARS
medrxiv
IV. Other The gender ratio (M: F) was 1.12: 1.
2020-02-09 Guan et al Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

The core data sets (including clinical outcomes and symptoms) of 3 patients were lacking due to the incompleteness of original reports, hence this report delineates 1,099 patients with 2019-nCoV ARD from 552 hospitals in 31 provinces/province-level municipalities (Fig.
The statistically significant risk factors, sex, and smoking status were included into the final models.
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
Without sharing detailed income or education information, participants who discussed socioeconomic status generally indicated low levels of education (e.g.
2020-02-11 Cai et al Bulk and single-cell transcriptomics identify tobacco-use disparity in lung gene expression of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCov
medrxiv
IV. Other groups of age or gender after other variables (age/gender, race, smoking status and platforms) were adjusted (p-value=0.90 for age, p-value=0.35 for gender, Fig.

B shows the result from multivariate analysis with all factors including age, gender, race, smoking and platforms.

Adjusted by other factors (age, gender, race and platforms) in multivariate analysis, smoking still shows a significant disparity in ACE2 gene expression (p-value=0.01, Fig.
2020-02-11 Blumberg et al Assessing the plausibility of subcritical transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States
medrxiv
IV. Other Variation in climate, population density, demographics, social interactions, health care access and public health interventions can all affect transmission.
2020-02-20 Qian et al Psychological responses, behavioral changes and public perceptions during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a population based cross-sectional survey
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

17, 18 Before our survey, Wuhan confirmed 3,215 cases, 19 accounting for 27.3% of all cases across China; 20 Shanghai reported 153 cases, 68 (44.4%) of them from nonlocal residents.
We found no evidence that sex, age, educational attainment, working status and marital status were closely associated with psychological and behavioral responses during the novel coronavirus outbreak.

Personal characteristics were collected in the following dimensions: sex, age, working status, perceived household income level, whether experienced symptoms (cough and fever) during the past two weeks, whether has friends or relatives with symptoms in the past two weeks, and whether there had been confirmed or suspected cases of novel coronavirus infections in their neighborhood.
2020-02-23 Hou et al Public Exposure to Live Animals, Behavioural Change, and Support in Containment Measures in response to COVID-19 Outbreak: a population-based cross sectional survey in China
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Characteristics of respondents, including gender, age, marital status, education, income, and All rights reserved.
2020-02-24 Rasmussen et al Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
IV. Other Women were matched on sex, age, timing of contracting SARS, health care worker status, 173 underlying illness and whether the woman resided in a housing area where there was a large 174 outbreak.
2020-02-25 Caramelo et al Estimation of risk factors for COVID-19 mortality - preliminary results
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We found that age is the variable that presents higher risk of COVID-19 mortality, where 60 or older patients have an OR = 18.8161 (CI95%[7.1997; 41.5517]).
Comorbidities' empirical prevalence can be computed from China CDC report for all subjects, but does not allow different values for each age interval and gender and, for that reason, we considered that prevalence values for each comorbidity were constant across age groups and gender.

The dataset includes four variables: age, gender, comorbidities and death.

Some limitations such as the lack of information about the correct prevalence of gender per age or about comorbidities per age and gender or the assumption of independence between risk factors are expected to have a small impact on results.
2020-02-27 Guan et al Comorbidity and its impact on 1,590 patients with COVID-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

647 (40.7%) patients were managed inside Hubei province, and 1,334 (83.9%) patients had a contact history of Wuhan city.
The model has been adjusted with age and smoking status .
2020-02-27 Kwok et al Community responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hong Kong: risk perception, information exposure and preventive measures
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Respondents were asked about their demographics (including sex, age, living district, education 118 attainment, household income), self-perceived health status, travel history in the past month, occurrence 119 of respiratory symptoms in the past fourteen days and anxiety level using the Hospital, Anxiety and 120 Depression scale -Anxiety (HASD-A) (0-7 = Normal; 8-10 = Borderline abnormal; 11-21 = Abnormal).
2020-03-03 Li et al Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 740 individuals (i.e., 214 GP and 526 nurses) were enrolled in the study.
Results showed that gender (OR = 3.117; 95% CI = 4.247-18.808; P = 0.002) and marriage status (OR = 2.072; 95%CI = 0.626-24.533; P = 0.039) are risk factors for VT of nFLNs ( Table 6 ).

Demographic data included gender, age, hospital classification, years of working, departments, professional titles, undertaking management work or not, educational background, marriage status, single child or not, and fertile or not.
2020-03-04 Bi et al Epidemiology and Transmission of COVID-19 in Shenzhen China: Analysis of 391 cases and 1,286 of their close contacts
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Time from symptom onset to death was marked by "+" for the three patients who have died.
In multiple regression models including sex, age, baseline severity and method of detection, in addition to age, baseline severity was associated with time to recovery.
2020-03-05 Xiao et al The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China
Med Sci Monit
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Demographic and social data from the study participants included age, gender, education, and marital status.
2020-03-05 Li et al Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
IV. Prevalence Study

Virus genome sequencing of five patients with pneumonia hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019, revealed the presence of a previously unknown β-CoV strain in all of them .
The individual's immune system factors include genetics (such as HLA genes), age, gender, nutritional status, neuroendocrine-immune regulation, and physical status.
2020-03-06 Dai et al Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Risk perception and psychological status were compared by demographic characteristics and COVID-19 exposure experiences.
2020-03-10 Li et al Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
IV. Other Demographic data included gender, age, hospital classification, years of working, departments, professional titles, undertaking management work or not, educational background, marriage status, and single child or not.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
Demographic variables included age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, and place of current residence (Hubei vs. other provinces of China).

Knowledge scores significantly differed across genders, age-groups, categories of marital status, education levels, and residence places (P<0.001) ( Table 2 ).

These potentially risky behaviors were related to male gender, occupation of "students", marital status of "others", residing in other parts of China, and poor COVID-19 knowledge.

Considering that educational attainment and occupation are often used as proxy measures of socioeconomic status , strictly speaking, our findings can only be generalized to Chinese populations of a relatively high socioeconomic status, particularly women.
2020-03-16 Liu et al Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 Outbreak in China Hardest-hit Areas: Gender differences matter
Psychiatry Research
IV. Prevalence Study

A total of 285 participants were recruited in the study, among which 124(43.5%) were currently in Wuhan, and 188(66%) were previously in Wuhan.
At recruitment the following parameters were collected: demographic information (gender, age, occupation, education state), contact frequency with COVID-19 Wuhan area and infected patients, sleeping quality and disturbance, quarantine status and exercise.
2020-03-17 Ying et al Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Of the 882 participants who were recruited in this study, 845 completed the questionnaires correctly (response rate of 95.80% ).
The demographic characteristics included age, gender, educational level, occupation and the kinship with HCWs.
2020-03-17 Shi et al Temporal relationship between outbound traffic from Wuhan and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) incidence in China
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We further estimated that the travel ban may have prevented approximately 19,768 COVID-19 cases (95% CI: 13,589, 25,946) outside of Wuhan by February 29, 2020.
We included demographic, economic, and geographical factors that are potential contributors to the provincial variation in the association between traffic volume and COVID-19 incidence.
2020-03-19 Roussel et al SARS-CoV-2: fear versus data
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
IV. Prevalence Study

Among them, 543 samples were positive for coronaviruses, with two deaths (mortality rate 0.36%): 277 samples were HKU1, 146 samples were NL63, 77 samples were OC43 and 43 samples were 229E.
Finally, seasonality, geographic location, heat and humidity are co-factors, as are age, gender and underlying pathologies.
2020-03-20 Gilbert et al Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study An insufficiency of passenger data (eg, reason for travel [tourism vs business], nationality, age, sex, and socioeconomic status) also prevent us from accounting for different risk exposure of travellers to China.
2020-03-20 Rossman et al A framework for identifying regional outbreak and spread of COVID-19 from one-minute population-wide surveys
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

To this date, March 21st, 18pm, there have been 54,059 responses, including 50,572 (93.55%) adults and 3,488 (6.45%) children.
The survey contains questions on age, gender, geographic location (city, street, zip code), isolation status and smoking habits.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Risks posed by COVID-19 are analyzed state-wise with respect to the parameters: urgency, local uninsured populations, liquid assets poverty rate, and age weighted mortality rate.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The impact of unplanned school closure on children's social contact: Rapid evidence review
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The size of the quantitative studies ranged from 35 households (representing 67 children) to 2,229 households (representing 4,171 children).
Child's gender, household educational level, household income and household size were not associated with the likelihood of the child leaving the home during school closure .
2020-03-23 Chin et al Healthcare worker absenteeism, child care costs, and COVID-19 school closures: a simulation analysis
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We focus our analyses on households with children below age 13 -although children under the age of 5 do not attend school, daycare services would likely also be closed in the event of school closures.
The ACS provides comprehensive coverage of data at the county level across factors such as education, housing, employment, and income.
2020-03-23 Milne et al The Effectiveness of Social Distancing in Mitigating COVID-19 Spread: a modelling analysis
medrxiv
IV. Other Its model matches the real-world counterpart with respect to population size, household structure, age of individuals in each household (stratified from Australian census data into ten age bands), employment, schooling, and daily movement between these locations.
2020-03-23 Koo et al Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

20 Asymptomatic individuals were able to infect at a 50% reduced rate compared with their symptomatic counterparts based on estimates from Nishiura and colleagues.
The generated households contained demographic characteristics, such as age, marital status, religion, and ethnicity, of household members.
2020-03-24 Banerjee et al Estimating excess 1- year mortality from COVID-19 according to underlying conditions and age in England: a rapid analysis using NHS health records in 3.8 million adults
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We included 3,862,012 individuals aged ≥30 years: 1,957, 935 (50.7%) female, 3,331,280 (86.3%) ≤70 years (mean age 43.5 in male and females) and 530732 (13.7%) >70 years (mean age 78.1 in males and 80.2 in females) (Suppl Table 1 ).
Demographic (age, gender, index of multiple deprivation (IMD) quintiles and geographic region) and baseline characteristics were recorded .
2020-03-26 Tuite et al Mathematical modeling of COVID-19 transmission and mitigation strategies in the population of Ontario, Canada
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The model was further stratified by health status to account for differential vulnerability to severe infection among those with underlying health conditions.
2020-03-27 Lover et al Quantifying treatment effects of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for COVID-19: a secondary analysis of an open label non-randomized clinical trial (Gautret et al, 2020)
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Data for the six patients who were lost-to-follow-up (LTF) were manually entered into a database.
All models were adjusted for age and sex.
2020-03-27 Hsiang et al The Effect of Large-Scale Anti-Contagion Policies on the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We did not collect city level health outcomes recorded prior to January 24, 2020 in provinces that had fewer than ten confirmed cases at that date.
varying intercepts captured as coefficients to dummy variables) to account for all time-invariant factors that affect the local growth rate of infections, such as differences in demographics, socio-economic status, culture, or health systems.
2020-03-29 Shi et al Knowledge and attitudes of medical staff in Chinese psychiatric hospitals regarding COVID-19
Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health
IV. Prevalence Study

From February 1-15, 2020, the questionnaire link was sent to 200 psychiatrists and nurses, and 10 psychiatrist groups (approximately 20 chat groups of between 8 and 120 participants) from the author's Wechat account.
Data on the demographic characteristics of respondents, including age, sex, marital status, living status, the status of influenza vaccination, and profession, were recorded.

Analyzing the data by the sex, age, education, and marital status of the respondents, univariate analysis showed no difference between their willingness to care for psychiatric patients suffering from COVID-19 infection (Table 3 ).
2020-03-30 Ding et al A Multi-hospital Study in Wuhan, China:Protective Effects of Non-menopause and Female Hormones on SARS-CoV-2 infection
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

To determine the correlation between menstruation and disease progression, 435 patients who offered their complete menstruation history were included.
The correlation between menstruation status and disease severity or outcomes were analyzed.
2020-03-30 Ugarov et al Inclusive Costs of NPI Measures for COVID-19 Pandemic: Three Approaches
medrxiv
IV. Other These costs include three components: costs of mortality, costs of illness and costs of reduced economic activity due to mitigation and precautionary demand.

Economic costs come from three sources: direct costs of illness and treatment, employment losses and losses due to falling demand or mandatory shutdowns.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Furthermore, international migrant workers and refugees can be affected by income loss, healthcare insecurity, and the ramifications that come with postponement of decisions on their legal status or reduction of employment, legal, and administrative services.

6 Policy changes necessary to enable the compliance of individuals with limited resources and the underserved with NPIs.

6.0.0.1 Highlights

6.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Zhang et al Recommended psychological crisis intervention response to the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in China: a model of West China Hospital
Precision Clinical Medicine
IV. Other 6 During these epidemics, the consequences on the psychosocial wellbeing of at-risk communities are sometimes largely overlooked, especially in the Ebola-affected regions, where few measures were taken to address the mental health needs of confirmed patients, their families, medical staffs or general population.
2020-02-07 Tang et al Estimation of the Transmission Risk of the 2019-nCoV and Its Implication for Public Health Interventions
J Clin Med
III-3. Time Series Analysis

To obtain the relatively reliable data, we used the exponential growth law to deduce the number of reported cases per day from 31 December 2019 to 10 January 2020 (called dataRev2) or from 10 to 15 January 2020 (called dataRev1) based on the 41 cases on that date, as shown in Figure 1A .
This high threshold rate of quarantine puts an extremely high requirement for the city's public health infrastructure and its citizens' adherence to personal protective and public health interventions, including a reduction of transmission-effective contacts, separation and restriction during the quarantine.
2020-02-19 Ryu et al Estimate number of individuals infected with the 2019-novel coronavirus in South Korea due to the influx of international students from countries with virus risk: a simulation study
medrxiv
IV. Other Conclusion: To mitigate possible epidemics, additional efforts to improve the compliance of home-quarantine are warranted along with other containment policies.
2020-02-19 Liu et al Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other These findings are important in enabling health authorities to allocate health resources and develop appropriate treatments for medical staff who have mental health problems.
2020-02-28 Heymann et al COVID-19: what is next for public health?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

8 Infected individuals produce a large quantity of virus in the upper respiratory tract during a prodrome period, are mobile, and carry on usual activities, contributing to the spread of infection.
Alongside scalability, a need exists for inclusive tools that allow for genuine and meaningful engagement from children in rural areas, ethnic minorities, gender and sexual minorities, those exposed to poverty and violence, and those who experience health challenges.
2020-02-29 Lee et al Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
Public Health
IV. Other Unfortunately, in resource-constrained settings, investment in this critical health protection infrastructure is a low priority compared with other health priorities.
2020-02-29 Xu et al Evaluation of the clinical characteristics of suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 during home care with isolation: A new retrospective analysis based on O2O
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

There were 13 patients with two initial symptoms, 5 patients with three initial symptoms, and 2 patients (4·2%) with four initial symptoms.
Our strategy not only helps relief the problem of scarce medical resources and reduce unnecessary cross-infection in hospitals, but it also increases people's self-management ability and cooperation and encourages them to participate in health monitoring.
2020-03-05 Gilmour et al Progress towards Health for All: Time to End Discrimination and Marginalization
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study They reported that minority women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds easily engaged with a culturally relevant and acceptable cardiovascular disease prevention intervention, which positively motivated healthy dietary behaviour, and showed that, with the correct engagement, marginalized groups can have reduced dietary risks.
2020-03-06 Lai et al Effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions for containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Other Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are therefore essential components of the public health response to outbreaks.

help policy makers assess the potential benefits and costs of NPIs to contain COVID-19 outbreaks.

Without NPIs, the number of COVID-19 cases would likely have shown a 67-fold increase (IQR: 44 - 94), with the effectiveness of different interventions varying.
2020-03-08 Peak et al Modeling the Comparative Impact of Individual Quarantine vs. Active Monitoring of Contacts for the Mitigation of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

15 For the shorter serial interval scenario 1, the median incremental benefit of individual quarantine over active monitoring is much larger at 0.93, corresponding to a need to quarantine 1.1 infected contacts to prevent one secondary infection on average; though, if only 0.04% of traced contacts are infected, nearly 2,500 individuals need to be quarantined to prevent one secondary infection relative to active monitoring.
In such settings, resources may be prioritized for broader social distancing measures, and active monitoring or individual quarantine of high-risk contacts can contribute synergistically.

In such circumstances where resources are prioritized for scalable interventions such as social distancing, we show active monitoring or individual quarantine of high-risk contacts can contribute synergistically to social distancing.

In such circumstances where resources are prioritized for scalable interventions such as social distancing, 16 we show active monitoring or individual quarantine of high-risk contacts can contribute synergistically with social distancing.

Interventions based on contact tracing, unlike mass interventions such as travel restrictions and social distancing, are targeted at individuals and therefore require resources --material and personnel --proportional to the number of cases traced: contact tracing requires detailed interview of case patients to learn of contacts and public health outreach to trace them; active monitoring of contacts may include twice-daily visits by healthcare workers or phone-based self-monitoring; 14 and individual quarantine of contacts requires private space, provision of essentials, and investment in enforcement.
2020-03-11 Wong et al Preparing for a COVID-19 pandemic: a review of operating room outbreak response measures in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
IV. Other These containment measures are necessary to optimize the quality of care provided to COVID-19 patients and to reduce the risk of viral transmission to other patients or healthcare workers.
2020-03-11 Chopra et al How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Because some patients will be critically ill and need scarce resources, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventilators , hospitals must prepare now for how they will triage patients, allocate resources, and staff wards.
2020-03-13 Li et al The demand for inpatient and ICU beds for COVID-19 in the US: lessons from Chinese cities
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

During the peak of the epidemic from mid to late February, a maximum of 19,425 patients (24.5 per 10,000 adults) were hospitalized, 9,689 patients (12.2 per 10,000 adults) were considered to be in "serious" condition, and 2,087 patients (2.6 per 10,000 adults) needed critical care per day.
Capacity needs in Chinese cities could inform the planning of local healthcare resources.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
Due to limited access to internet and online health information resources, vulnerable populations of Chinese society under the COVID-19 epidemic such as older adults and rural people at grass-root level are more likely to have poor knowledge, negative attitudes, and inappropriate preventive practices towards COVID-19.

Health education programs aimed at improving COVID-19 knowledge are helpful for Chinese residents to hold optimistic attitudes and maintain appropriate practices.
2020-03-15 Li et al Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other Target populations are categorized in four levels: Level 1 population includes those who are most vulnerable to mental health problems, such as hospitalized patients with confirmed infection or severe physical condition, frontline health professionals and administrative staff.
2020-03-16 Jain et al Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictive symptoms and comorbidities for severe COVID-19 infection
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

Results Of the 2259 studies identified, 42 were selected after title and abstract analysis, and 7 studies (including 1813 COVID−19 patients) were chosen for inclusion.
This will aid clinical assessment, risk stratification, and resource allocation, and allow public health interventions to be targeted at the most vulnerable.

To aid clinical assessment, risk stratification, efficient resource allocation, and targeted public health interventions, future research must aim to further define those at high-risk of severe illness with COVID−19.
2020-03-16 Liu et al Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 Outbreak in China Hardest-hit Areas: Gender differences matter
Psychiatry Research
IV. Prevalence Study

A total of 285 participants were recruited in the study, among which 124(43.5%) were currently in Wuhan, and 188(66%) were previously in Wuhan.
Professional and effective mental health services should be designed in order to aid the psychological wellbeing of the population in affected areas, especially those living in hardest-hit areas, females and people with poor sleep quality.
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Health, distress, and life satisfaction of people one-month into COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

At the time of the survey, 99 (26.8%) were going to work at their office; 93 (25.2%) had stopped working; and 139 (37.7%) resorted to working from home; 32 (8.7%) participants had not been working before the outbreak started; and 6 (1.6%) reported losing their work during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Such identification can help to prioritize those who might need more help, and psychologists, mental health professionals and social workers can provide services to start addressing at least the mental health issues, even during the lockdown.
2020-03-17 Bedford et al COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other To respond to COVID-19, many countries are using a combination of containment and mitigation activities with the intention of delaying major surges of patients and levelling the demand for hospital beds, while protecting the most vulnerable from infection, including elderly people and those with comorbidities.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Many countries, especially those that are low resource, have insufficient access to essential health services.
2020-03-19 Zhao et al A systematic approach is needed to contain COVID-19 globally
Science Bulletin
IV. Prevalence Study Secondly, governments of countries need to strive for a unified and equitable allocation of resources and to improve the efficiency of resource distribution through coordinated management.
2020-03-20 Liu et al COVID-19 Progression Timeline and Effectiveness of Response-to-Spread Interventions across the United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Our findings underscore the pressing need for preparedness and timely interventions in states with a large fraction of the vulnerable uninsured and liquid-asset-poverty populations.
2020-03-20 Ramanathan et al Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study However, individual centres must focus on conservation of scarce supplies to ensure readiness in case of surges in demand and to support neighbouring hospitals.
2020-03-20 Gong et al A Tool to Early Predict Severe 2019-Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) : A Multicenter Study using the Risk Nomogram in Wuhan and Guangdong, China
medrxiv
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

A total of 372 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, 9 patients younger than 15 years of age were excluded from the study.
These severe illness patients often require utilization of intensive medical resources.
2020-03-23 Wang et al Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of public health measures to control COVID-19: a modelling study
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are necessary to prevent person-to-person transmission of COVID-19.
2020-03-24 Fessell et al Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Beyond: Micropractices for Burnout Prevention and Emotional Wellness
Journal of the American College of Radiology
IV. Other As with the many structural and cultural changes that are needed to help prevent burnout and promote wellness, such studies will require considerable time, energy, and resources.
2020-03-24 Portnoy et al Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
IV. Other Individuals with these conditions are particularly susceptible to COVID-19, and medication compliance and disease optimization are important ways to mitigate severity.
2020-03-25 Giannakeas et al Estimating the maximum daily number of incident COVID-19 cases manageable by a healthcare system
medrxiv
IV. Other Further, the tool can inform the required intensity for non-pharmaceutical societal interventions like physical distancing based on a healthcare system's proximity to the sustainable threshold.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
During outbreaks, information and education should be provided for residents and their families, and should include their specific condition, and practices necessary to reduce the risk of infection.
2020-03-27 Alqahtani et al Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
medrxiv
I. Systematic Review

A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients.
Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers.
2020-03-30 James et al Suppression and Mitigation Strategies for Control of COVID-19 in New Zealand
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study In those countries, this has been achieved by extremely intensive measures, including mandatory and strictly enforced quarantine, huge amounts of resources devoted to contact tracing, electronic surveillance of citizens' movements, etc.

In these countries, this has been achieved by extremely intensive measures, including mandatory and strictly enforced quarantine, huge amounts of resources devoted to contact tracing, electronic surveillance of citizens' movements, etc.
2020-03-30 Ferstad et al A model to forecast regional demand for COVID-19 related hospital beds
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model In order to plan their response, hospital and public health officials need to understand how many people in their area are likely to require hospitalization for COVID-19; how these numbers compare to the number of available intensive care and acute care beds; and how to project the impact of socialdistancing measures on utilization.

Local leaders in these vulnerable communities should pay particular attention to the case growth rate if they seek to tailor their response rapidly to predicted downstream resource constraints.
2020-03-30 Truelove et al COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond
medrxiv
IV. Other The primary aims of this analysis are to: 1) develop a baseline expectation of the possible infection burden, speed, and hospitalization capacity needed to respond to a COVID-19 epidemic; 2) use these findings to provide some recommendations to support ongoing preparedness planning by the Bangladesh government, United Nations agencies and other actors for a COVID-19 outbreak; and 3) apply lessons from this case study to refugees and other forcibly displaced persons globally.
2020-03-30 Matava et al Clear plastic drapes may be effective at limiting aerosolization and droplet spray during extubation: implications for COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other However, PPE is a limited resource and often requires providers to be adaptive and resourceful in a crisis.
2020-03-31 Fausto et al Creating a Palliative Care Inpatient Response Plan for COVID19 – The UW Medicine Experience
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other In crisis care, there are inadequate resources available to provide equivalent care and care is provided to the highest level possible, acknowledging that there will likely be increased mortality and morbidity as a result of scarce resources, but striving to provide this care in the highest quality and most ethical way possible.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Measures to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic are a focus of communities in countries, but preparedness plans should consider refugees and migrants and their needs.

As governments tighten border controls and implement other measures in response to COVID-19, they need to consider the impacts on refugees and migrants and ensure that such actions do not prevent people from accessing safety, health-care services, and information.
2020-03-31 Stahel et al How to risk-stratify elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Patient Saf Surg
IV. Other In essence, during the current time of widespread anxiety around the COVID-19 pandemic , a pragmatic guide based on underlying risk stratification and resource utilization will help support our ethical duty of assuring access to timely and appropriate surgical care to our patients, while maintaining an unwavering stewardship for scarce resources and emergency preparedness.

Ultimately, if rationing of healthcare resources in terms of limiting access to surgical care in the United States will never be needed, then these ongoing crucial discussions will have served as an important exercise in nationwide disaster preparedness.
2020-04-01 Chen et al Novel Coronavirus International Public Health Emergency: Guidance on Radiation Oncology Facility Operation
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other The availability of psychological counseling services should be prioritized to individuals in need during the pandemic.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
In the setting of a pandemic, the limited availability of resources (such as critical shortages of PPE) combined with the risk of potential exposure and spread of infection to patients and the availability of appropriate health care workers, often become the main drivers for provision of health care services.

7 Research on why people fail to comply with public health advice, even if they want to do so (e.g., social or financial costs may be too high).

7.0.0.1 Highlights

7.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Wu et al Moral imperative for the immediate release of 2019-nCoV sequence data
National Science Review
IV. Prevalence Study

In the 42 samples collected after January 10, all from outside Wuhan, the mutation is observed in 18 samples (43%).
While this jump may seem startling, the sample size is really too small to afford strong statistical confidence.
2020-02-06 Jin et al A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)
Mil Med Res
II. Randomized Controlled Trial If your body temperature continues to be higher than 38 ℃, or your breath is getting worse, you should seek medical treatment timely.
2020-02-12 Wu et al Facemask shortage and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Reflection on public health measures
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Given that most employees would return to work on 10 Feb 2020 while students would return to schools on 2 Mar .
2020-02-17 Keeling et al The Efficacy of Contact Tracing for the Containment of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19).
medrxiv
IV. Other A definition of contact that is too restrictive and inappropriate for the infection means some encounters may fail to meet the definition yet may be at risk of infection; these excluded contacts could be identifiable (light grey) or unidentifiable (orange).
2020-02-19 Chen et al Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other Third, staff did not know how to deal with patients when they were unwilling to be quarantined at the hospital or did not cooperate with medical measures because of panic or a lack of knowledge about the disease.

Second, they did not want their families to worry about them and were afraid of bringing the virus to their home.
2020-02-19 Klepac et al Contacts in context: large-scale setting-specific social mixing matrices from the BBC Pandemic project
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The main dataset used in this study consisted of 36,155 participants reporting 378,559 contacts.
Second, the initial version did not allow users to record precisely zero contacts: these users may thus be missing from our denominators, we do not expect this effect to be large and for simplicity have not attempted to correct for it here.
2020-02-20 Qian et al Psychological responses, behavioral changes and public perceptions during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a population based cross-sectional survey
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

17, 18 Before our survey, Wuhan confirmed 3,215 cases, 19 accounting for 27.3% of all cases across China; 20 Shanghai reported 153 cases, 68 (44.4%) of them from nonlocal residents.
Participants were asked "how likely do you think you will contract novel coronavirus infection over the next month" with five responses from very unlikely to very likely , and "how serious do you think the novel coronavirus infection would be if you contracted it" with five options from very mild to very serious .
2020-02-28 Chen et al Clinical Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Epidemic Influenza A (H7N9) Infection: A Hint for COVID-19 Treatment
Engineering
IV. Prevalence Study

Based on the principles of voluntariness and informed consent, 44 patients with H7N9-induced ARDS were included as a control group, while 17 patients with H7N9-induced ARDS acted as an experimental group with allogeneic menstrual-blood-derived MSCs.
Therefore, they didn't want to have further visits, and some patients refused to attend, and even some did not complete follow up.
2020-03-03 Song et al An epidemiological forecast model and software assessing interventions on COVID-19 epidemic in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Yet, it is known that too strict quarantine can cause backfire; people may lose their trust and patience in their committed system, and consequently may try to reduce compliance or even avoid quarantine.
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
It is easy to understand that this can be perceived as withholding information and why the public would be frustrated.
2020-03-04 Shattuck et al The Race to Zero?: China's Poaching of Taiwan's Diplomatic Allies
Orbis
IV. Other As it poaches the remaining 15 diplomatic allies, Beijing might create the very thing is does not want to occur.

As Jacques deLisle notes, Beijing should recognize that squeezing Taipei too hard-reducing its diplomatic partners to zero or near zero-could be counterproductive because it would be seen, plausibly and rightly, as a serious threat to Taiwan's security in an international order where the capacity to engage in formal international relations matters, legally and politically.
2020-03-05 Xiao et al The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China
Med Sci Monit
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Even though all medical staff experience pressure at work, people who have high self-efficacy are able to control their emotions and try to sleep regularly after work.

Self-efficacy results in increased confidence to do the job well, and when combined with social support, members of the medical profession suffer less from loneliness and might be more optimistic, which improves coping mechanisms when under stress .
2020-03-06 Zarocostas et al How to fight an infodemic
The Lancet
IV. Other So it is a new challenge, and the challenge is the [timing] because you need to be faster if you want to fill the void…What is at stake during an outbreak is making sure people will do the right thing to control the disease or to mitigate its impact.
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other villages is not affected by COVID-19, the participants do not pay enough attention to COVID-19 and do not cause a strong emotional response, so there is no need to use emotional-focused coping.
2020-03-09 Pittcon goes ahead despite coronavirus
C&EN Global Enterprise
IV. Other Many booths sat empty, with signs stating that the exhibitor who had reserved the spot was “absent due to travel restrictions.” Firms small and large told C&EN that travel for their staff was down to a minimum, and they were watching and waiting to see how the virus would impact their business.
2020-03-11 Ayebare et al Adoption of COVID-19 triage strategies for low-income settings
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Other Furthermore, chest x-ray is not available at a large proportion of health facilities in Uganda, 5 and we did not want to ask health workers to navigate an impossible flowchart.
2020-03-13 Bayham et al The Impact of School Closure for COVID-19 on the US Healthcare Workforce and the Net Mortality Effects
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

10 We use the recent dataset, which includes information on just over 3 million individuals spread across 1.25 million households between January 2018-2020.
This may be optimistic because non-working adults may not be able to provide care, e.g., they may require care themselves.
2020-03-13 Harman et al The danger of stories in global health
The Lancet
IV. Other However, such evidence does not necessarily stack up if your lived reality is clinics that can be more than 50 km away from your home, are often understaffed, do not have basic supplies, may charge hidden fees and possibly detain you if you can't pay, and are the same place your aunty died in the past.

If you do not listen to these stories, any intervention to stop the spread of diseases, however scientifically advanced, is likely to fail.

The counter to fake news and false narratives is that people want to engage with knowledge, facts, and evidence.
2020-03-16 Guo et al The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the utilization of emergency dental services
Journal of Dental Sciences
IV. Other However, according to the Chinese authorities' recommendations and fearing of epidemics, people are reluctant to go outside but stay in house, with less willing to go to dental institutions.
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Health, distress, and life satisfaction of people one-month into COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

At the time of the survey, 99 (26.8%) were going to work at their office; 93 (25.2%) had stopped working; and 139 (37.7%) resorted to working from home; 32 (8.7%) participants had not been working before the outbreak started; and 6 (1.6%) reported losing their work during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Third, even though we had data from people who had not been working even before the outbreak started (8.7%) and people who went out of work during the outbreak (1.6%), the sample size of those two groups was small and we are cautious not to report them in the findings.
2020-03-18 Dehkordi et al Understanding Epidemic Data and Statistics: A case study of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other 11b , Germany had same COVID-19 trend as all others except Iran, which is not a bad news for Germans, but better ones comes when we want to calculate CFR.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
Financial loss can be a problem during quarantine, with people unable to work and having to interrupt their professional activities with no advanced planning; the effects appear to be long lasting.

Where appropriate, employers might also wish to consider proactive approaches that allow employees to work from home if they wish to, both to avoid financial loss and to stave off boredom, while being mindful that staff in these situations might not be at their most productive and might benefit more from remote social support from their colleagues.

A study 14 of people quarantined because of potential Ebola contact found that, although participants received financial assistance, some felt that the amount was insufficient and that it came too late; many felt wronged as the assistance they received did not cover their ongoing professional expenses.

People who are quarantined and have lower household incomes might require additional levels of support, along with those who lose earnings while in quarantine (ie, selfemployed people who are unable to work or sala ried staff who are unable to take paid leave).

In one study, 13 none of those quarantined in Toronto during SARS reported much financial hardship because employers or the government compensated them, but where that reimbursement was slow to arrive it caused those less financially welloff to struggle.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Timely, better, and more contemporary results are what our consumers want.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The impact of unplanned school closure on children's social contact: Rapid evidence review
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The size of the quantitative studies ranged from 35 households (representing 67 children) to 2,229 households (representing 4,171 children).
Evidence from studies in which people are asked how they would react to a hypothetical school closure often find that parents believe they would co-operate with public health advice.

For example, younger children seem to be more likely to go grocery shopping (likely because they are too young to be left at home alone when their caregiver goes to the shops) whereas older children are more likely to take part in social activities like parties and going to restaurants.
2020-03-20 Kim et al AAEDM: Theoretical Dynamic Epidemic Diffusion Model and Covid-19 Korea Pandemic Cases
medrxiv
IV. Other News and social medias should not be fully trusted because they will say whatever they want people to believe.
2020-03-24 Xu et al Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information
Sci Data
IV. Other Should users wish to incorporate this information into spatially-dependent models, they should exercise caution in possible misrepresentation of geographic specificity.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other "How big of a problem do you think the coronavirus is?"
2020-03-27 Hsiang et al The Effect of Large-Scale Anti-Contagion Policies on the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We did not collect city level health outcomes recorded prior to January 24, 2020 in provinces that had fewer than ten confirmed cases at that date.
Our results do not speak to the efficacy of these other policies.
2020-03-27 Ma et al A Simple Mathematical Model for Estimating the Inflection Points of COVID-19 Outbreaks
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model It should be noted that the 4 parameter cases that failed to pass significance tests only means that the parameter values may have too high standard error (variability) and the failure does not necessarily mean that the model structure failed.
2020-03-27 Weissgerber et al Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures
PMC
IV. Other We would advise those in this situation to be transparent about the expected impact on their finances; some registrants may choose to donate the money to keep the organization afloat.

For meetings that are not canceled, refunds of registration fees should be given to those who are unable to attend due to travel bans, or who choose not to attend for reasons of personal safety and public health.
2020-03-27 Gonzalez et al Is a COVID19 Quarantine Justified in Chile or USA Right Now?
medrxiv
IV. Other For values above one doctors will surely find themselves in the difficult humanitarian dilemma of who to care for, or even worse, who to save.
2020-03-27 Yadlowsky et al Estimation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prevalence in Santa Clara County
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The second is to use our institution's hospitalization rate among those who test positive for COVID-19, and adjust for the fact that for many, the disease is mild enough that they do not seek healthcare.
2020-03-27 Garrett et al COVID-19: the medium is the message
The Lancet
IV. Other But it also matters how the global public might use the name.
2020-03-30 Stangeland et al How to evaluate the success of the COVID-19 measures implemented by the Norwegian government by analyzing changes in doubling time
medrxiv
IV. Other In Norway, companies that could move their employees over to working from home were advised to do so.
2020-03-30 Barari et al Evaluating COVID-19 Public Health Messaging in Italy: Self-Reported Compliance and Growing Mental Health Concerns
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study 5 More than 80% within each skeptic group (i.e., low trust of government, believe information is untruthful, believe social distancing is ineffective) hold pro-health beliefs -except for those who believe the government or public is over-reacting to the virus.

A third of respondents assigned to the control group received no message, a third received a message about social externalities with a prompt for reflection (" If you are infected with COVID-19, you are likely to infect 2,000 people -including your and your friends' parents and grandparents, who might die.
2020-03-31 Adams et al Goals of Care in a Pandemic: Our Experience and Recommendations
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other As a matter of public health, states and institutions may want to revisit policies which do not allow two physicians to write a DNR order when CPR is medically inappropriate.
2020-03-31 Dalton et al Protecting the psychological health of children through effective communication about COVID-19
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
IV. Other 1 Parents would do anything to protect their children from distress and might avoid talking about difficult feelings and events.

Although adults often want to know how children are feeling, adults often do not set an example by sharing some of their own feelings, and conversations might well be dominated by the practical aspects of illness.

8 Research on the economic impact of this or any pandemic. This would include identifying policy and programmatic alternatives that lessen/mitigate risks to critical government services, food distribution and supplies, access to critical household supplies, and access to health diagnoses, treatment, and needed care, regardless of ability to pay.

8.0.0.1 Highlights

8.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Lin et al A conceptual model for the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China with individual reaction and governmental action
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Computer Model We argue that these data were heavily impacted by availability of medical supplies and health care workers.

We argue that these data were heavily impacted by 87 availability of medical supplies and health care workers.
2020-02-12 Wu et al Facemask shortage and the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Reflection on public health measures
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Meanwhile, the supply of and demand for facemasks and other medical resources should be considered when planning for public health measures, so as to maintain the availability and affordability of medical resources.

Effective public health measures should also consider the adequacy and affordability of medical resources.
2020-03-04 Memish et al Middle East respiratory syndrome
The Lancet
II. Randomized Controlled Trial

A retrospective study of 136 patients with MERS found that macrolide therapy resulted in no reduction in mortality or faster MERS-CoV RNA clearance compared with those who were not treated with macrolides.
113 Mental health support, accurate information, and appropriate supplies, including food, clothes, and accommodation, should be provided to people who feel isolated.
2020-03-05 Peters et al Understanding the emerging coronavirus: what it means for health security and infection prevention
Journal of Hospital Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

50 Super spreading individuals were found to have a major impact in the previous MERS, SARS, and Ebola pandemics.
Health system capacity factors include the availability of treatment or vaccine, and the level of resources (both human, material, and financial) available for allocation.
2020-03-06 Wu et al Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Computer Model Above all, for health protection within China and internationally, especially those locations with the closest travel links with major Chinese ports, preparedness plans should be readied for deployment at short notice, including securing supply chains of pharmaceuticals, personal pro tective equipment, hospital supplies, and the necessary human resources to deal with the consequences of a global outbreak of this magnitude.
2020-03-11 Wong et al Preparing for a COVID-19 pandemic: a review of operating room outbreak response measures in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie
IV. Other To prepare for a pandemic, hospitals need a strategy to manage their space, staff, and supplies so that optimum care is provided to patients.
2020-03-15 Xiang et al The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: managing challenges through mental health service reform
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other Clearly, preventive measures such as the provision of adequate medical supplies and protective equipment, public education on the risks of COVID-19 for hospital staff and patients, and restricting family visits to hospitals, are essential to reduce the likelihood of disease transmission in major psychiatric hospitals.
2020-03-18 Takian et al COVID-19 battle during the toughest sanctions against Iran
The Lancet
IV. Other Despite WHO and other international humanitarian organisations dispatching supplies and medical necessities, 6 the speed of the outbreak and the detrimental effects of sanctions have resulted reduced access to life-saving medicines and equipment, adding to the health sector's pre-existing requirements for other difficult health conditions.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Enabling function index C1.3-financing mechanism and funds for timely response to public health emergencies Availability and accessibility of financing mechanisms is essential for prevention, detection, and control of infectious disease outbreaks.

Many countries, especially those that are low resource, have insufficient access to essential health services.

Access to essential health services is one of the key indicators that contributes to the indices of enabling function and operational readiness.
2020-03-18 Legido-Quigley et al The resilience of the Spanish health system against the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Other Second, long-term underinvestment in health services, as seen in many countries following the 2008 financial crisis, impairs their resilience by depleting their ability to respond to surges in need for health care with sufficient health professionals, intensive care unit beds, protective equipment, diagnostic test kits, and mechanical ventilators.
2020-03-18 Dowd et al Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Law enforcement officers (at least 500 men) are deployed only on February 25 to ensure that no one enters and exits the so-called red areas creating 35 gates.
Beyond introducing sick pay for those who need to self-isolate or care for family members, joint government and industry emergency policy measures should seek to counter family economic crises by delaying rent and mortgage payments for example, particularly for vulnerable and precarious workers.
2020-03-20 Legido-Quigley et al Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study However, their response is vulnerable to shortcomings in the coordination of services; access to adequate medical supplies and equipment; adequacy of risk communication; and public trust in government.

Fifth, in all locations, critical care treatment and medicines have been available for patients with COVID-19, but adequate supplies of personal protective equipment in hospitals and face masks in the community are a key concern.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Third, commitment and release of financial resources from partners and donors before a crisis hits Africa will help anticipate demand and address supply chain management, mapping, and stockpiling of COVID-19 response needs, such as large quantities of personal protective equipment, gloves, surgical masks, coveralls, and hoods, and medical countermeasures like antiviral agents.
2020-03-20 Escher et al An Ounce of Prevention: Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Mass Gatherings
PMC
IV. Prevalence Study Governments are tasked with three critical duties in the response to COVID-2019: the coordination of services with access to COVID-19 testing kits, medical supplies and equipment, accurate and timely communication, and maintaining public trust in their government .
2020-03-20 Ramanathan et al Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study Hospital operations teams and regional tracking of disposables can help with the distribution of these supplies on the basis of need.

52 Centres need to review policies to manage and retain staff trained in ECMO, including insurance, incentives, sick leave, and occupational health and safety.
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
10 Four studies found that supplies from public health authorities were insufficient.
2020-03-20 Lover et al Sentinel Event Surveillance to Estimate Total SARS-CoV-2 Infections, United States
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Hospitals and healthcare facilities that do have tests have limited the testing criteria to those with highest potential risk, to optimize the use of scarce resources .
2020-03-22 Kwatra et al Dermatology practices as vectors for COVID-19 transmission: a call for immediate cessation of non-emergent dermatology visits
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
IV. Other We should all work with our hospitals and communities to help ensure that available supplies go where they are needed most.
2020-03-23 Mareiniss et al The impending storm: COVID-19, pandemics and our overwhelmed emergency departments
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Other 17 Given the potential volume of patients, the lack of resources and likely shortages of material and personnel, we may need to use crisis standards of care in order to accommodate all the additional patients.
2020-03-24 Davarpanah et al Novel Screening and Triage Strategy in Iran During Deadly Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Epidemic: Value of Humanitarian Teleconsultation Service
Journal of the American College of Radiology
IV. Other Diagnostic issues pose challenges for health systems over quarantine decisions such as shortage of hospital beds and medical supplies, should the number of suspected cases exceed a certain threshold.
2020-03-24 Portnoy et al Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
IV. Other 3 In response to the current COVID-19 situation, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and commercial health plans largely have waived co-pays for TM visits as a means to encourage utilization in this time of need, and allergists need to pay attention to this.
2020-03-24 Hoe GAN et al Preventing intra-hospital infection and transmission of COVID-19 in healthcare workers
Safety and Health at Work
IV. Other In a public health crisis, there is global demand for PPE resources but often insufficient supplies, as is the case for COVID-19 .
2020-03-26 Vessey et al Everything old is new again: COVID-19 and public health
Journal of Pediatric Nursing
IV. Other These uncertainties are pervasive and of paramount concern such as obtaining sufficient food and supplies, having to stay home from work with or without pay, home-schooling their children and meeting household expenses.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
03 Although not regulatory in scope, these guidelines support infection prevention and control (IP&C) professionals, health care organizations and health care providers in developing, implementing and evaluating IP&C policies, procedures and programs to improve the quality and safety of health care and patient outcomes.
2020-03-26 Zheng et al Recommendations and guidance for providing pharmaceutical care services during COVID-19 pandemic: A China perspective
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other Results Community pharmacy management teams shall support PC services by providing adequate supply of COVID-19 related medications and preventative products, following environment regulations, and providing sufficient staff trainings.
2020-03-26 Al-Quteimat et al SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help?
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study Additionally, in light of the lack of a currently approved treatment for COVID-19, pharmacists working in the pharmaceutical supply chain should be prepared to manage any potential medication or pharmacy consumable shortages (such as protective personal equipments, intravenous bags and syringes), to work proactively on having a plan to judiciously use the current resources, and be prepared to face increased case loads or emergency scenarios.
2020-03-27 Kang et al Critical Care for Patients with Severe Covid-19 in Sichuan Province, China: Provincial Cohort Study
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Results: Out of 539 confirmed Covid-19 patients, 81 severe cases (15.0%) were identified.
Due to the urban-rural disparities in healthcare, provision of critical care for severely ill patients was centralized by dispatching ICU staff and resources to designated hospitals.
2020-03-27 Rivera et al The Impact of COVID-19 on Radiation Oncology Clinics and Cancer Patients in the U.S.
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other Treatment delays may also be due strains on the healthcare system in the setting of a pandemic due to travel restrictions, availability of workforce, and/or lack of access to hospital care.
2020-03-28 Foddai et al Base protocol for real time active random surveillance of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) – Adapting veterinary methodology to public health
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study The frequency of the surveys would depend on the resources available and on the management needs of public health authorities for improved decision making, prioritizations and anticipating response needs (i.e., hospital beds, ventilators, medical staff on location or on call etc.).
2020-03-29 Woolley et al Dilemma of Organ Donation in Transplantation and The COVID-19 Pandemic
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
III-2. Retrospective Cohort

One report of two cases of COVID-19 in heart transplant recipients in China suggested that the disease was manifest in a manner similar to that expected in the general population and did not progress into the hyperinflammation stage of the disease with recovery in both cases.
Next, the urgency of the need to accept the organ should be resolved in the context of available resources in medical equipment, healthcare personnel, hospital intensive care bed availability, and available personal protective
2020-03-30 Ugarov et al Inclusive Costs of NPI Measures for COVID-19 Pandemic: Three Approaches
medrxiv
IV. Other This approach is consistent with the standard approaches used to estimate economic costs of the epidemic Falling demand and mandatory shutdowns affect transport, food services, accommodation, arts and recreation.
2020-03-30 Kang et al Impact on Mental Health and Perceptions of Psychological Care among Medical and Nursing Staff in Wuhan during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

In total, 994 participants, including 183 (18.4%) doctors and 811 (81.6%) nurses, completed the survey.
Medical and nursing staff differed in terms of how they wanted to obtain services based on their levels of mental health problems.
2020-03-31 Cadogan et al On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists’ contribution during a public health crisis
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study through social distancing and self-isolation requirements), employment and access to healthcare services which will ultimately create new barriers to medication adherence.

30 Further adverse consequences of medication shortages include a drain on pharmacy resources whereby additional time needs to be devoted to either sourcing or compounding suitable therapeutic alternatives and liaising with clinicians to amend prescriptions.
2020-03-31 Singer et al What is ahead for health policy and technology in the 2020s?
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Other Ensuring that all countries have sustainable and widely accessible health resources is vital to achieving Universal Health Coverage: ie provision of health services for all when needed without suffering undue financial hardship .
2020-03-31 Rosenthal et al Impacts of COVID-19 on vulnerable children in temporary accommodation in the UK
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

In 2019, the charity Shelter reported that a child loses their home every 8 min in Great Britain, which is the equivalent of 183 children per day.
The UK Government needs to take necessary steps and work collaboratively with all sectors, health services, and the housing sector (eg, possibly use hotels with space availability due to no incoming tourists) to reduce overcrowding and transmission of COVID-19 to protect some of the most vulnerable in our society.
2020-03-31 Cappelli et al Will the COVID-19 pandemic make us reconsider the relevance of short food supply chains and local productions?
Trends in Food Science & Technology
IV. Other The globalization led to the opportunity to make available several food products in all over the world, with 7 positive returns for the profitability of the food industries and for consumers.
2020-03-31 Papachristofilou et al Contingency plans in a radiation oncology department amid the 2019-nCoV outbreak in Switzerland
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other In anticipation of potential staff shortages and ancillary workloads, as well as to mitigate exposure of cancer patients to the risk of infection, treatment schedules were reviewed to account for priorities during the 2019-nCoV outbreak.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other The absence of basic amenities, such as clean running water and soap, insufficient medical personnel presence, and poor access to adequate health information are major problems in these settings.
2020-04-01 Sultan et al AGA Institute Rapid Recommendations for Gastrointestinal Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gastroenterology
I. Systematic Review

58, 59 First, the systematic reviews by Offeddu et al included a meta-analysis of 3 observational studies that showed a benefit in using N95 respirators over standard masks in protecting health care workers from SARS (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.
In the setting of a pandemic, the limited availability of resources (such as critical shortages of PPE) combined with the risk of potential exposure and spread of infection to patients and the availability of appropriate health care workers, often become the main drivers for provision of health care services.
2020-04-01 Chen et al Novel Coronavirus International Public Health Emergency: Guidance on Radiation Oncology Facility Operation
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other The availability of psychological counseling services should be prioritized to individuals in need during the pandemic.
2020-04-01 Zaorsky et al Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy Recommendations in Response to COVID-19
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study The benefit of these procedures should be based on resource and staff availability.
2020-04-01 Castro et al Impact of COVID-19 on psychiatric assessment in emergency and outpatient settings measured using electronic health records
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Particularly given constraints on ability to provide direct patient care imposed by quarantines and resource limitations, understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on provision of psychiatric care is critical.
2020-04-01 Abhari et al COVID-19 Epidemic in Switzerland: Growth Prediction and Containment Strategy Using Artificial Intelligence and Big Data
medrxiv
IV. Other The primary goal of public authorities is to manage the outbreak so as to avoid overwhelming the health care system, in addition to buy time in order to bring online more capacity and resources that can handle the current and potential future peaks in the demand for emergency services.
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Levels of Evidence in Epidemiology
LevelRating Criteria
IEvidence obtained from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized, controlled trials
IIEvidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomized, controlled trial
III-1Evidence obtained from well-designed pseudorandomized controlled trials (without proper randomization)
III-2Evidence obtained from comparative studies with concurrent controls and allocation not randomized (cohort studies), case-control studies, or interrupted time series with a control group
III-3Evidence obtained from comparative studies with historical control, 2 or more single-arm studies, or interrupted time series without a parallel control group
IVEvidence obtained from descriptive case series, either before testing or before and after testing