What has been published about ethical and social science considerations?

Table of Contents

1 Efforts to articulate and translate existing ethical principles and standards to salient issues in COVID-2019

1.0.0.1 Highlights

1.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study On the foremost, since these cut across different countries, which are part of the global community and have their unique laws and regulations concerning issues mentioned above, it is paramount to observe them as per the dictate of their source country's laws and regulations; hence, underlining the importance of working towards not only the promoting of data through its usage but also the need for standardized and universally agreed protocols.
2020 Xinguang Chen et al First two months of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic in China: real-time surveillance and evaluation with a second derivative model
Global Health Research and Policy
IV. Prevalence Study Despite the limitations, this study provided new data to encourage those who are infected to better fight against the infections; to inform and encourage the general public, the medical and health professionals and the government to continue their current measures and to think of more measures that are innovative and effective to end the COVID-19 epidemic.
2020 Cascella et al Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19)
StatPearls
IV. Other Health organizations coordinate information flows and issues directives and guidelines to best mitigate the impact of the threat.
2020 HUA et al Strategy of dental clinics to cope with the epidemic period of infectious diseases based on the experience of corona virus disease outbreak
West China Journal of Stomatology
IV. Other Strategies following the National Laws and Standards of China and local standards of several provinces for controlling cross-infection and instituting protective measures for medical staff in dental clinics during an epidemic period are discussed.
2020 Thapa et al Air Medical Evacuation of Nepalese Citizen During Epidemic of COVID-19 from Wuhan to Nepal
Journal of Nepal Medical Association
IV. Other The aim of the present article is to share the experience, the challenges faced and recommendations for future similar cases.
2020-01-31 Azamfirei et al The 2019 Novel Coronavirus: A Crown Jewel of Pandemics?
J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures)
IV. Other While 2019-nCV is novel, coronaviruses are not and the general principles of managing viral pneumonia still apply.
2020-02-05 McCloskey et al SARS to novel coronavirus – old lessons and new lessons
Epidemiology and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study One of the critical lessons from the SARS experience was the absolute necessity to be able to coordinate the international resources that are available in an outbreak and to get them focussed on identifying priorities and solving problems.
2020-02-14 Di Marco et al Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IV. Prevalence Study Better consideration of EID risk under a One Health lens can thus advance key international initiatives, such as the GHSA, which emphasizes multisectoral solutions to strengthen preparedness capacity for prevention, detection, and response to biological threats.
2020-02-19 Heaton et al Frontiers in antiviral therapy and immunotherapy
Clin Transl Immunology
IV. Prevalence Study In this Clinical & Translational Immunology Special Feature, I illustrate a strategic vision integrating these themes to create new, effective, economical and robust antiviral therapies and immunotherapies, with both the realities and the opportunities afforded to researchers working in our changing world squarely in mind.
2020-02-21 Fast et al Potential T-cell and B-cell Epitopes of 2019-nCoV
biorxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We obtained viral sequences associated with 321 68 patients from GISAID on Feb 1st 2020.
55 These immunology principles guide the design of our current .
2020-02-27 Al-Tawfiq et al Asymptomatic coronavirus infection: MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
IV. Other Such studies will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of these emerging viruses and will inform policy makers to make scientifically sound recommendations.
2020-03-04 Wang et al Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Other The government should also provide guidelines and principles in effective online learning and ensure that the contents of the courses meet the educational requirements.
2020-03-05 Spiteri et al First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study The surveillance objectives were to: describe the key epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 cases detected in Europe; inform country preparedness; and improve further case detection and management.
2020-03-05 Peters et al Understanding the emerging coronavirus: what it means for health security and infection prevention
Journal of Hospital Infection
IV. Prevalence Study

50 Super spreading individuals were found to have a major impact in the previous MERS, SARS, and Ebola pandemics.
The decisions taken, both on national and international levels, will help inform how we react to future pandemics and health security challenges.
2020-03-06 Wu et al SARS-CoV-2 is an appropriate name for the new coronavirus
The Lancet
IV. Other We believe that the naming of SARS-CoV-2 by the Coronavirus Study Group is aligned with the goals of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses to facilitate good practice and scientific exchange.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study highlighted the development need for relevant research methodologies, risk communication approaches, health data management strategies, practical health emergency study ethical guidelines, bridging global research capacity disparities, and infrastructure constraints, to ensure knowledge advancement in Health-EDRM.
2020-03-10 Cortegiani et al A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
Journal of Critical Care
I. Systematic Review

Results We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China.
The current circumstances justify prioritization of ethical review of study proposals above other, less pressing, research topics (i.e.
2020-03-10 Wu et al Clinical outcomes of 402 patients with COVID-2019 from a single center in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

The cohort included 297 patients with confirmed and 105 with suspected diagnosis.
The clinicians and authorities recognized these problems and made prompt changes to the diagnostic guidelines, so that patients meeting the criteria for clinical diagnosis in Hubei Province were treated as COVID-19 patients.
2020-03-11 Chopra et al How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Hospitals should anticipate that normal staffing ratios and some standards of care are unlikely to be maintained; plans for contingency and crisis standards that lay out a legal and ethical framework for care decisions, including who will make decisions, how, and under what circumstances, must be readied.
2020-03-12 Ferretti et al Quantifying dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests that epidemic control and avoidance is feasible through instantaneous digital contact tracing
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis Here, we address epidemiological issues that affect the feasibility of an algorithmic approach to instantaneous contact tracing; ethical and implementation issues are addressed separately.
2020-03-13 Remuzzi et al COVID-19 and Italy: what next?
The Lancet
IV. Other Its principles and organisation derive from the British National Health Service model, and it is based on three fundamental principles.
2020-03-13 Lei et al Protocol of a randomized controlled trial testing inhaled Nitric Oxide in mechanically ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2).
medrxiv
II. Randomized Controlled Trial The study will be conducted following the Good Clinical Practices of the International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practices (ICH-GCP) as well as local and national regulations.
2020-03-15 Yang et al Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Patients Infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Review and Perspective
Int J Biol Sci
II. Randomized Controlled Trial

systematically reviewed eight randomized controlled trials, and concluded that, by combination with conventional medicine, TCM showed the beneficial effects such as decrease of mortality and relief of symptom, as well as control of fungal infections in patients with SARS.
Hopefully, current clinical study to evaluate the effect of TCM on COVID-19 will use more strict protocols, concealment of allocation, and double-blinding, in order to ensure the compliance of international acceptable standards.
2020-03-18 Jin et al Core Outcome Set for Clinical Trials on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COS-COVID)
Engineering
IV. Prevalence Study

The consensus meeting was held on 24 February 2020, and involved 20 participants.
In order to overcome these problems, experts in evidence-based medicine and clinical research methodology have put forward strategies to develop core outcome sets (COSs).
2020-03-18 Jacobsen et al Will COVID-19 generate global preparedness?
The Lancet
IV. Other 9 Transdisciplinary, multisectoral strategies are necessary when seeking to solve complex problems that threaten global public health and safety.
2020-03-19 Filippi et al COVID-19 OUTBREAK IN NORTHERN ITALY: FIRST PRACTICAL INDICATIONS FOR RADIOTHERAPY DEPARTMENTS
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
IV. Other The indications were integrated with the WHO recommendations and with the local health authorities' guidelines.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Participants learn transformational skills while academics find new ways to explain value propositions.

Each case uses overarching educational goals and processes to integrate mindsets, interests and approaches of social, research and practice stakeholders, bridging and advancing understanding across the three domains of research, practice and social stakeholder while delivering valuable outcomes to each.
2020-03-21 Choi et al Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidance for Use of Cardiac Computed Tomography Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
IV. Other While many institutions will have their own guidelines for clinicians and imagers to follow, these recommendations are meant to help CCT labs which are interested in developing or refining such policies.
2020-03-21 Poole et al Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises
Int J Equity Health
IV. Other Without the adaptation of existing standards, mitigation plans will fall short of health and human rights obligations in outbreak response.
2020-03-23 Vu et al Financing Vaccines for Global Health Security
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study While challenges exist (e.g., sustained funding commitments), new initiatives such as CEPI can learn important lessons from these examples .
2020-03-24 Chen et al First Clinical Study Using HCV Protease Inhibitor Danoprevir to Treat Naive and Experienced COVID-19 Patients
medrxiv
IV. Other All patients were moderate COVID-19 patients per China National Standards .
2020-03-24 Haines et al National UK programme of community health workers for COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other Our proposal for CHWs would produce a large cadre of people with an understanding of basic epidemiological and public health concepts 11 who could challenge scientific misinformation and explain the rationale for specific health policies and interventions to the public.
2020-03-24 Huang et al The Battle Against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emergency Management and Infection Control in a Radiology Department
Journal of the American College of Radiology
IV. Other These measures are in accordance with relevant laws and regulations to protect patients as well as the staff.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
recommendations ☐Criteria for assessing impact of implementing the recommendations ☐Advice on the frequency and interval of measurement ☐Operational definitions of how the criteria should be measured ☐A statement that the guideline will be updated ☐Explicit time interval or explicit criteria to guide decisions about when an update will occur ☐Methodology for the updating procedure ☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation)

☐A statement that the guideline will be updated ☐Explicit time interval or explicit criteria to guide decisions about when an update will occur ☐Methodology for the updating procedure ☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation) ☐Information/description of the types of facilitators and barriers that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., practitioners have the skills to deliver the recommended care, sufficient equipment is not available to ensure all eligible members of the population receive mammography) ☐How the information influenced the guideline development process and/or formation of the recommendations

☐Information/description of the cost information that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., specific drug acquisition costs per treatment course) ☐How the information gathered was used to inform the guideline development process and/or formation of the recommendations ☐A statement that the guideline will be updated ☐Explicit time interval or explicit criteria to guide decisions about when an update will occur ☐Methodology for the updating procedure ☐Types of facilitators and barriers that were considered ☐Methods by which information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementing recommendations were sought (e.g., feedback from key stakeholders, pilot testing of guidelines before widespread implementation) ☐Information/description of the types of facilitators and barriers that emerged from the inquiry (e.g., practitioners have the skills to deliver the recommended care, sufficient equipment is not available to ensure all eligible members of the population receive mammography) ☐How the information influenced the guideline development process and/or formation of the recommendations
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other As trusted, community-facing healthcare professionals, pharmacists are uniquely suited to bring about change in patient behaviors.Community pharmacists using HBM to reinforce COVID-19 mitigation behaviors should appropriately emphasize the severity and susceptibility of the threat, emphasize barriers to acting, help patients identify ways to overcome barriers to acting, and reinforce self-efficacy beliefs.
2020-03-27 Abraham et al Heart Failure Collaboratory Statement on Clinical Trials in the Landscape of COVID-19
JACC: Heart Failure
IV. Prevalence Study Actions that enhance the safety and well-being of study participants are consistent with the core research principles of beneficence, justice, and respect of persons.
2020-03-31 Udwadia et al How to protect the protectors: 10 lessons to learn for doctors fighting the COVID-19 Coronavirus
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
II. Randomized Controlled Trial Safety measures whilst dealing with OPD / Clinic patients: The salient features of the current WHO and CDC recommendations are outlined here .
2020-03-31 Garraud et al COVID-19: Is a paradigm change to be expected in health care and transfusion medicine?
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique
IV. Other Plans would address public health issues but also anthropological, sociological, ethical and philosophical questions (and perhaps legal ones).
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other The planning or implementation of activities for the management of the dead related to COVID-19 should be always framed by the following fundamental principles:

The document contains essential elements that should be addressed by Most of the following recommendations should be part of an existing mass fatality response plan (see the ongoing efforts from various countries and regions to create specific guidelines for the dead as a part of their directives ).
2020-03-31 Singer et al A new pandemic out of China: the Wuhan 2019-nCoV coronavirus syndrome
Health Policy and Technology
IV. Prevalence Study

Complications in the initial 41 patients reported from Wuhan up to 2nd January 2020 included acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury and secondary infection .
Future issues of the journal will include expert reports and commentaries from health policy and health technology perspectives on evolution of the 2019-nCoV pandemic.
2020-03-31 Shah et al Use of Systemic Immunomodulatory Therapies During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
IV. Other 5 As clinical evidence is collected to inform evidenced-based guidelines for management of COVID-19, dermatologists should use their clinical judgement, the existing AAD guidelines, and an understanding of pathophysiology to determine the appropriate risk-benefit of using systemic immunomodulating therapies.
2020-03-31 Olivia Li et al Preparedness among Ophthalmologists: During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ophthalmology
IV. Other Clear consensus statements with regards to operational issues such as clinic flow protocols, instrument cleaning protocols and the appropriate use of PPE under different circumstances will help systems in the appropriate allocation of scarce resources.
2020-04-30 Georgalakis et al A disconnected policy network: The UK's response to the Sierra Leone Ebola epidemic
Social Science & Medicine
IV. Other The international community of anthropologists and medical anthropologists that mobilised in Autumn 2014 do indeed share common principles and analytical and normative beliefs.
2020-05-31 Friedman et al She Ji: The Next Five Years
She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation
IV. Other In the first editorial, we considered the "interdisciplinary gap where professional fields and research disciplines should meet," offering to "examine the intersection of design, economics, and innovation in various combinations, from various perspectives, and using the methods and methodological frameworks of the many disciplines that contribute to the necessarily interdisciplinary design field.

These fields call for the development of theories, principles, and methods to sustain their growth.
2020-05-31 Chughtai et al Policies on the use of respiratory protection for hospital health workers to protect from coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
International Journal of Nursing Studies
IV. Other All guidelines, except the WHO and the Australian guidelines, briefly discuss the need for fit testing but do not provide detail on fit testing procedures.

2 Efforts to embed ethics across all thematic areas, engage with novel ethical issues that arise and coordinate to minimize duplication of oversight

2.0.0.1 Highlights

2.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 ZHANG et al Exploration of the ethical review criteria and management of COVID-19 Emergency Research
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Objective Conduct comprehensive analysis of the regulatory requirement of ethical review regarding to the response of public health emergency, illustrate particular ethical review and ethical administration strategies for COVID-19 Emergency Research.
2020 Zhao et al Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
III-3. Time Series Analysis The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-01-24 Zhao et al Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak
biorxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-02-05 Hermanowicz et al Forecasting the Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemics using a simple (simplistic) model - update (Feb. 8, 2020)
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-02-11 Cai et al Bulk and single-cell transcriptomics identify tobacco-use disparity in lung gene expression of ACE2, the receptor of 2019-nCov
medrxiv
IV. Other Therefore, ethical oversight and patient consent were not handled in this project.
2020-02-11 Liu et al Assessing the Tendency of 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) Outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable.
2020-02-12 Ung et al Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study On January 5, 2020, the local government swiftly took the lead in coordinating and communicating actions across various sectors.
2020-02-12 Chen et al Distribution of the 2019-nCoV Epidemic and Correlation with Population Emigration from Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other No ethical approval is needed for this study.
2020-02-14 Di Marco et al Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IV. Prevalence Study These studies ignore the role that EID risk plays in human health, generating a key policy blind spot: Efforts to reduce EID risk involve trade-offs with other societal goals, which ultimately rely on the same planetary resources .
2020-02-18 zhang et al When will the battle against novel coronavirus end in Wuhan: a SEIR modeling analysis
medrxiv
IV. Other The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-02-18 Fu et al Simulating and Forecasting the Cumulative Confirmed Cases of SARS-CoV-2 in China by Boltzmann Function-based Regression Analyses
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-02-20 Qian et al Psychological responses, behavioral changes and public perceptions during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a population based cross-sectional survey
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

17, 18 Before our survey, Wuhan confirmed 3,215 cases, 19 accounting for 27.3% of all cases across China; 20 Shanghai reported 153 cases, 68 (44.4%) of them from nonlocal residents.
Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board at School of Public Health, Fudan University (IRB#2020-TYSQ-01-1).

Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board at Fudan University School of Public Health (IRB#2020-TYSQ-01-1).
2020-03-02 Zhuang et al Estimation of local novel coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in Wuhan, China from off-site reported cases and population flow data from different sources
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-03-06 Zhang et al Serological detection of 2019-nCoV respond to the epidemic: A useful complement to nucleic acid testing
medrxiv
IV. Other The study was conducted in accordance with the International Coordinating Council for Clinical Trials and the Helsinki Declaration, and was approved by the Hospital Ethics Review Committee (Ethics No 2020PS038K), and the patient's informed consent was exempted.
2020-03-06 sun et al Study of the mental health status of medical personnel dealing with new coronavirus pneumonia
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Among 138 patients admitted consecutively from January 1 to 28, 2020, to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, the proportion of medical personnel was as high as 29% .
Permission to conduct the study and to obtain access for the purpose of gathering the data were obtained from by the Ethics Committee of Harbin Medical University(HRBYKD-A26).
2020-03-06 Yang et al Exuberant elevation of IP-10, MCP-3 and IL-1ra during SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with disease severity and fatal outcome
medrxiv
IV. Other The study protocol was Declaration of Helsinki and institutional ethics guidelines.
2020-03-06 Zhuang et al Preliminary estimation of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in Iran: a modelling analysis based on overseas cases and air travel data
medrxiv
IV. Other The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-03-06 Willem et al SOCRATES: An online tool leveraging a social contact data sharing initiative to assess mitigation strategies for COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other The social contact data sharing initiative is part of the ERC consolidator grant "TransMID" which received ethical approval from the Hasselt University Medical Ethical Committee (CME2016/618)
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee.
2020-03-08 Xu et al Acute Myocardial Injury of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Methods: We analyzed data from 53 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients (28 men, 25 women; age, 19-81 years).
The institutional ethics board of our institutes approved this study (No.
2020-03-10 Cortegiani et al A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
Journal of Critical Care
I. Systematic Review

Results We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China.
The current circumstances justify prioritization of ethical review of study proposals above other, less pressing, research topics (i.e.
2020-03-10 Barra et al Analytical sensibility and specificity of two RT-qPCR protocols for SARS-CoV-2 detection performed in an automated workflow
medrxiv
IV. Other All volunteers agreed to participate, signed informed consent and the internal use of these samples for diagnostic workflow optimization was according to the medical ethical rules of our institution.
2020-03-13 Bhagavathula et al Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Knowledge and Perceptions: A Survey of Healthcare Workers
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 529 HCWs participated, 453 of whom completed the study questionnaire (85.6% response rate), including 234 (51.6%) men and 219 (48.3%) women; most of the participants were below 44 years of age (82.4%).
Finally, due to the four-week closure of higher educational institutions in the UAE during the COVID-19 outbreak , the institutional review board was not approached.
2020-03-16 Zhao et al Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

DESIGN The study was conducted by comparing the blood group distribution in 2,173 patients with COVID-19 confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 test from three hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen, China with that in normal people from the corresponding regions.
This study received approval from the Research Ethics Committees of the All rights reserved.
2020-03-16 Wu et al Generalized logistic growth modeling of the COVID-19 outbreak in 29 provinces in China and in the rest of the world
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model Ethics approval and consent to participate: Not applicable
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Health, distress, and life satisfaction of people one-month into COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

At the time of the survey, 99 (26.8%) were going to work at their office; 93 (25.2%) had stopped working; and 139 (37.7%) resorted to working from home; 32 (8.7%) participants had not been working before the outbreak started; and 6 (1.6%) reported losing their work during the COVID-19 outbreak.
The participants were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
2020-03-18 Mian et al Coronavirus: the spread of misinformation
BMC Med
IV. Other If health bodies appropriately manage, educate, and address the people's concerns, there is an opportunity to bridge the level of distrust that has arisen by antiscience movements in recent times.
2020-03-19 Zhang et al SARS-CoV-2 turned positive in a discharged patient with COVID-19 arouses concern regarding the present standard for discharge
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other 8 Ethical Approval: This study was approved by Ethics Committee of our hospital.
2020-03-20 Ramanathan et al Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study Use predetermined consensus criteria for rationing of ECMO if indicated; reassess all aspects of a patient's treatment plan regularly, including the need to continue or terminate ECMO; invoke distributive justice only in circumstances where rationing precludes the ability to care for each individual optimally; seek opinions from hospital ethics and medicolegal committees in ethically challenging scenarios Quality assurance and collaborative research Maintain quality assurance and clinical governance frameworks with frequent ECMO quality reviews; ensure collection and sharing of data to inform preparedness and patient care; aim to have ethics approval in place or develop mechanisms for expedient ethics review and approval processes ECMO=extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
2020-03-20 Ye et al Clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reactivation
Journal of Infection
IV. Other All study procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Ethics Review Committee.
2020-03-20 Dong et al Characterization of anti-viral immunity in recovered individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Clinical and pathological characteristics of the 12 COVID-19 patients in this study were shown in Table 1 .
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (the institutional review board at Tsinghua University) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
2020-03-20 song et al Advance of Novel Coronavirus Registration Clinical Trial
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study It is worth noting that 22.84% of the studies failed ethical verification.All human-oriented clinical trials must in any case follow the "Helsinki Declaration", which has become a consensus of the medical community, and follow the basic ethical principle of "doctors should provide medical care in the best interests of patients" to ensure the subjects .The ChiCTR Center has issued a warning and requested the supplementary information of the failed units to be reviewed.Medical ethics review should strictly abide by the review work content of the "Ethical Review Methods for Biomedical Research Involving

However, 22.84% of the studies did not receive ethical approval, and 47.41% were not confirmed by the data management committee.
2020-03-20 Nkengasong et al Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Fourth, national, regional, and international organisations need to cooperate and collaborate to optimise limited supplies, using a whole of government approach.
2020-03-23 Yan et al Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Hainan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other The study was approved by the institutional ethics board of the Second Affiliated All rights reserved.
2020-03-23 Fu et al Association between Clinical, Laboratory and CT Characteristics and RT-PCR Results in the Follow-up of COVID-19 patients
medrxiv
IV. Other The institutional ethics board of our institutes approved this study (No.
2020-03-23 Wu et al Clinical Characteristics of 74 Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019
medrxiv
IV. Other This study was approved by the institutional review board of the ethics committee in our hospital (QFELL-KY-2020-11) and written informed consent was obtained from patients' legal guardians prior to enrollment.
2020-03-27 Zheng et al Risk-adapted Treatment Strategy For COVID-19 Patients
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committees of the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China.
2020-03-27 Skums et al Global transmission network of SARS-CoV-2: from outbreak to pandemic
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study At the same time, our work underscores the need to put in place coordinated efforts involving multiple countries in order to achieve epidemic control.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study In addition to legal and ethical challenges, All rights reserved.
2020-03-30 O’Connell et al Midwives in a pandemic: A call for solidarity and compassion
Women and Birth
IV. Prevalence Study COVID-19 calls for a coming together, a blurring of traditional professional boundaries in ways that promote greater coordinated cooperation between all stakeholders.
2020-03-30 Fomsgaard et al An alternative workflow for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 - escape from the NA extraction kit-shortage
medrxiv
IV. Other Exemption for review by the ethical committee system and informed consent was given by the Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics -Capital region in accordance with Danish law on assay development projects.
2020-03-31 Polverari et al 18F-FDG uptake in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patient, referred to PET/CT for Non-Small Cells Lung Cancer restaging
Journal of Thoracic Oncology
IV. Other All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional and/or national committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
2020-03-31 Bukhari et al The diagnostic evaluation of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for the assessment of chest X-ray of patients infected with COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Other Animal and human rights statement All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
2020-03-31 FINEGAN et al International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): General Guidance for the Management of the Dead Related to COVID-19
Forensic Science International: Synergy
IV. Other Ensure a proper response is in place to cover all those aspects of the management of the dead process, including consider the investigative needs of law enforcement agencies in cases that apply.
2020-03-31 Ngoi et al A segregated-team model to maintain cancer care during the COVID-19 outbreak at an academic center in Singapore
Annals of Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study

The higher risk of COVID-19 complications in cancer patients 6 required a coordinated effort to ensure business continuity while maintaining patient and staff safety.
Institutional ethics review boards and sponsors were forewarned about possible increases in protocol deviations during this period.
2020-04-01 Xie et al Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus — an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study Ethical Approval: The ethical approval or individual consent was not applicable.
2020-04-15 Musazzi et al New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
IV. Prevalence Study In parallel, the cooperation among Regulatory Authorities and stakeholders of the pharmaceutical distribution chain should also be improved to set up shared strategies to mitigate distribution-related unavailability in specific geographic regions and to prevent shortages.
2020-05-31 Friedman et al She Ji: The Next Five Years
She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation
IV. Other In the first editorial, we considered the "interdisciplinary gap where professional fields and research disciplines should meet," offering to "examine the intersection of design, economics, and innovation in various combinations, from various perspectives, and using the methods and methodological frameworks of the many disciplines that contribute to the necessarily interdisciplinary design field.

3 Efforts to support sustained education, access, and capacity building in the area of ethics

3.0.0.1 Highlights

3.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Gralinski et al Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV
Viruses
IV. Prevalence Study

The novel CoV (2019-nCoV) was isolated from a single patient and subsequently verified in 16 additional patients .
This connectivity has facilitated awareness as well as new collaborations and a rapid response by the global research community.
2020-02-19 Wang et al Risk Management of COVID-19 by Universities in China
Journal of Risk and Financial Management
IV. Other Such contributions have been made primarily in the following areas: alumni resource collection, medical rescue and emergency management, mental health maintenance, control of staff mobility, and innovation in online education models.
2020-02-19 Liu et al Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other By contrast, provision of online mental health services is safe.
2020-02-25 Tuite et al Estimation of COVID-2019 burden and potential for international dissemination of infection from Iran
medrxiv
IV. Other Supporting capacity for public health initiatives in the region is urgently needed.
2020-03-01 Tárnok et al Machine Learning, COVID-19 (2019-nCoV), and multi-OMICS
Cytometry Part A
IV. Other Models for sustainable international conferences are under testing and combine venues in close proximity to institutions with a substantial expertise on the focus area of the conference with virtual participation and contribution by internet for participants on more distant places.
2020-03-06 Chen et al Caution: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients at admission are changing
medrxiv
IV. Other No funding sources supported this work.
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other Hospitals should focus on providing psychological support to nurses and providing timely psychological assistance and training in coping strategies.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study This approach attempts to enlist and empower communities to invest and emphasize their disaster health risk reduction efforts, thereby strengthening health systems and supporting community health resilience building.

highlighted the development need for relevant research methodologies, risk communication approaches, health data management strategies, practical health emergency study ethical guidelines, bridging global research capacity disparities, and infrastructure constraints, to ensure knowledge advancement in Health-EDRM.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education levels of associate's degree or higher (vs. middle school and below, OR: 3.13-5.04, P<0.001) and COVID-19 knowledge score (OR: 0.75, P<0.001) were significantly associated with no confidence of winning.
2020-03-16 Tuite et al Estimation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Burden and Potential for International Dissemination of Infection From Iran
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Supporting capacity for public health initiatives in the region is urgently needed.
2020-03-16 Zhao et al Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

DESIGN The study was conducted by comparing the blood group distribution in 2,173 patients with COVID-19 confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 test from three hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen, China with that in normal people from the corresponding regions.
This study received approval from the Research Ethics Committees of the All rights reserved.
2020-03-17 Buckee et al Improving epidemic surveillance and response: big data is dead, long live big data
The Lancet Digital Health
IV. Computer Model Much more investment is needed in the validation, implementation, and scaling up of innovations in close intellectual partnership with stakeholders who are responsible for delivering them, 3 rather than continuing to fund the proliferation of solutions divorced from the problems themselves.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Our findings show that many countries need support to achieve these capacities and increased support should be provided as a global priority action to strengthen health security.

Capacity building and collaboration between countries are needed to strengthen global readiness for outbreak control.

34 Expanding access to essential health services in such countries would support the achievement of effective operational readiness, which is insufficient for many countries, as shown in our analysis.

This coordination and collaboration is reinforced by the introduction of voluntary IHR external evaluation processes, including Joint External Evaluations, which have successfully brought multiple sectors together around common plans for national preparedness capacity building.
2020-03-18 Lazzerini et al COVID-19 in Italy: momentous decisions and many uncertainties
The Lancet Global Health
IV. Other Clearly, better data are needed to support decision making and to build public awareness.
2020-03-19 Zhao et al A systematic approach is needed to contain COVID-19 globally
Science Bulletin
IV. Prevalence Study Thirdly, the education, participation and support of all members of society is essential to defeating the epidemic.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Regional Industry Training -Broaden community exposure to education -Adds value to regional systems and clusters -Lifts quality of regional thinking -Increased enterprise and regional value -Growth for individual enterprises -Experience of action learning to improve business outcomes -Familiarisation with new frameworks -Opportunities for action research -Improved likelihood of successful Linkage and ARC partnership grants -Opportunity to test current theory in practice -Ensures needs of regions inform educators, management and marketing schools and universities -Builds two-way links and bonds across respective domains A. Kriz, et al.

Research stakeholders include all activities conducted by tertiary institutions including research and higher education.
2020-03-20 Ramanathan et al Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study The focus is on building sustainable systems that ensure quality care for patients and their families and staff safety and wellbeing.
2020-03-20 Gilbert et al Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Based on measures of incidence in China, health capacity in Africa, and air travel volumes, the results presented in this study have implications for the prioritisation of deployment of resources across Africa.
2020-03-22 Ashrafi-rizi et al Information Diet in Covid-19 Crisis; a Commentary
Arch Acad Emerg Med
IV. Other Therefore, in order to achieve a comprehensive information diet in societies, people need to be equipped with the knowledge and skills of health information literacy, media health literacy, media literacy and health literacy.
2020-03-23 Chin et al Healthcare worker absenteeism, child care costs, and COVID-19 school closures: a simulation analysis
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We focus our analyses on households with children below age 13 -although children under the age of 5 do not attend school, daycare services would likely also be closed in the event of school closures.
The ACS provides comprehensive coverage of data at the county level across factors such as education, housing, employment, and income.
2020-03-23 Vlasschaert et al Preprint server use in kidney disease research: a rapid review
medrxiv
IV. Other Transparency and collaboration, visibility and recognition, and rapid dissemination of results were identified as benefits of preprint servers.
2020-03-23 Vu et al Financing Vaccines for Global Health Security
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Securing these resources, however, will require governments to strengthen their commitments to supporting EID vaccine markets, in order to allow private sector stakeholders and untapped capital to engage with these markets substantively.
2020-03-24 Huang et al The Battle Against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emergency Management and Infection Control in a Radiology Department
Journal of the American College of Radiology
IV. Other The buffer zone includes access areas for medical personnel and a dressing area for technologists.
2020-03-24 Haines et al National UK programme of community health workers for COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other 4 This model suggests that a 1-2 week basic training programme on COVID-19 and on public health surveillance could provide core skills and knowledge, particularly when combined with ongoing training and supervision.

This approach would meet a gap in UK undergraduate experience and might become a long-term feature of medical education.
2020-03-27 Wu et al Radiotherapy care during a major outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan
Advances in Radiation Oncology
IV. Other Health education for patients: We developed a radiotherapy patient informed consent form.
2020-03-27 Zhang et al Gastrointestinal tract symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019: Analysis of clinical symptoms in adult patients
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

In this study, 5 (2.4%) patients had an initial symptom of diarrhoea, whereas most patients developed diarrhoea 5.00(0.25-11.00) days (median) after the development of initial symptoms (Figure 3 ).
This study was reviewed by the ethics committee of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Ethics Approval No.
2020-03-28 Du et al Multi-omics Evaluation of Gastrointestinal and Other Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Gastroenterology
IV. Prevalence Study

GTEx project collected samples from 54 non-diseased tissue sites across nearly 1,000 individuals.
This study was supported by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Public Health and Preventive Medicine).
2020-03-30 Gupta et al Trend Analysis and Forecasting of COVID-19 outbreak in India
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model His area of research includes security, information systems and E-Governance.
2020-03-30 Ross et al Maximizing the Calm Before the Storm: Tiered Surgical Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Utilizing these methods, in the first week of implementation, out of 21 scheduled ACS clinic patients, we have already identified 19 patients able to be managed by virtual or telephone visits (91% reduction in clinic visit exposure).
Resident participation in emergency preparedness plans is essential in hospitals with training programs.
2020-03-30 Fomsgaard et al An alternative workflow for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 - escape from the NA extraction kit-shortage
medrxiv
IV. Other Exemption for review by the ethical committee system and informed consent was given by the Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics -Capital region in accordance with Danish law on assay development projects.
2020-03-30 Dong et al Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Methods: A total of 144 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study.
The study was approved by the Research Ethics Commission of Huoshenshan Hospital.
2020-03-31 Yamey et al Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines
The Lancet
IV. Other Gavi's board expressed support for the use of Gavi's IFFIm and advanced market commitments to improve COVID-19 vaccine development and access.

12 High-level dialogue is needed on ways to ensure complementarity of efforts and global access to COVID-19 vaccines.
2020-03-31 Pan et al Lessons learned from the 2019-nCoV epidemic on prevention of future infectious diseases
Microbes and Infection
IV. Other Making advance preparations for a pandemic may bring us significant short-term benefits, such as supporting basic health care, encouraging research and development, strengthening interregional cooperation and emergency response systems and biosafety management, and promoting the balanced development of health and security of the world in general.
2020-03-31 Stahel et al How to risk-stratify elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Patient Saf Surg
IV. Other In essence, during the current time of widespread anxiety around the COVID-19 pandemic , a pragmatic guide based on underlying risk stratification and resource utilization will help support our ethical duty of assuring access to timely and appropriate surgical care to our patients, while maintaining an unwavering stewardship for scarce resources and emergency preparedness.
2020-03-31 Cadogan et al On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists’ contribution during a public health crisis
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study 47, 48 It is important that any potential new services are reviewed by relevant professional bodies and provisions put in place for adequate support and resourcing.
2020-03-31 Fausto et al Creating a Palliative Care Inpatient Response Plan for COVID19 – The UW Medicine Experience
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
IV. Other We also specify that in a crisis capacity setting, telephonic support at all hours may provide additional palliative care capacity to provide coaching and symptom guidance to primary teams.
2020-04-01 Niehus et al Using observational data to quantify bias of traveller-derived COVID-19 prevalence estimates in Wuhan, China
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

We fitted our model using Stan version 2.19.1, 9 and we drew 80 000 samples from the joint posterior distribution of θ high , θ medium , θ low and β using four independent chains (20 000 samples each), and discarded for each chain the first 500 samples (burn-in).
Our findings will support rapid deployment of outbreak surveillance and control capacities in regions at high risk of case importation paired with low surveillance capacity.
2020-04-30 Zhai et al Mental health care for international Chinese students affected by the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other 5 Thus, building institutional and societal awareness of international Chinese students' needs for mental health care can be the lynchpin of supporting them.
2020-04-30 Kapata et al Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Other Increased governmental and donor investments are required to advance locally led, world-class public health work with surveillance, data and analytics capabilities and further expanding state-of-the-art laboratory capacities with more J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f trained personnel to sustain capacity to rapidly respond to outbreaks at their source.

A wellplanned long-term strategy from the Africa Union will add major value for consolidating African leadership of public health capacity building, training and research.
2020-04-30 Jorge et al Editorial Note
Computers & Graphics
IV. Other The authors report significant improvements both in power consumption and other design metrics to support low power quality rendering.
2020-07-31 Artika et al Pathogenic viruses: Molecular detection and characterization
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
IV. Prevalence Study The program might cover improving laboratory facilities, ensuring availability of required equipment, building human resource capacity and ensuring quality laboratory management.

The development of laboratories with an established capacity for molecular diagnosis and research of emerging viruses may be challenging because investment and long-term commitment is required for sustainability of capacity improvements (World Health Organization (WHO), 2008); Wertheim et al., 2010; Chua and Gubler, 2013) .

4 Efforts to establish a team at WHO that will be integrated within multidisciplinary research and operational platforms and that will connect with existing and expanded global networks of social sciences.

4.0.0.1 Highlights

4.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Wang et al Science in the fight against the novel coronavirus disease
Chin Med J (Engl)
II. Randomized Controlled Trial

They performed a metagenomic analysis of respiratory tract specimens obtained from five patients suffering from the pneumonia in question and identified the virus now known as 2019-nCoV as the causative agent.
Multidisciplinary research in biomedical, social, and environmental sciences is required to achieve a deeper understanding of disease transmission and develop more effective systems for emergency response.
2020 DU et al Strategies of strengthening the supporting role of science and technology in public health emergency: A case study on the COVID-19
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Results In order to make the scientific and technological research as the supporting system in public health emergency, we need to strengthen the basic research, to improve the research and development for controlling product with the independent intellectual property, to optimize the training system and evaluating system in public health technology, to deepen the international collaboration and to popularize the basic scientific knowledge.
2020 ZHANG et al Analysis on the layout of China’s emergency research projects during the public health emergency of COVID-19
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Other Methods Literature investigation method is applied to collect information of scientific research and emergency research projects of COVID-19 funded since January 20th by different entities including national, provincial and municipal administrative departments, public health agencies, research institutes, universities and industries.

Results Along with priorities identified for the emergency response and key research agendas, the national science and technology authorities at all levels and scientific research institutions have deployed a series of new science and technology projects, as well as a number of supporting policies and measures.
2020 Allam et al On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Healthcare
IV. Prevalence Study The position of this paper is to advance that it now possible to integrate technologies like the use of smart devices through IoT networks and wearable devices, data from mobile apps and others to help users to share information with accredited and certified health professionals, and in this case, improve the outcomes for better cross disciplinary and more resilient protocols and policies.

Here, as technological tools and laboratories around the world share data and collectively work to devise tools and cures, similar efforts should be considered between smart city professionals on how collaborative strategies could allow for the maximization of public safety on such and similar scenarios.
2020 Dunlop et al The coronavirus outbreak: the central role of primary care in emergency preparedness and response
BJGP open
IV. Other 9 Strong health systems built on comprehensive primary care are able to integrate both functions, disseminating the emergency response resources and information required to community-level staff who have the breadth of training required to manage new suspected cases alongside routine family medicine.
2020 HAN et al Design and preliminary application of regional control and prevention auxiliary information system under the attack of COVID-19 infectious disease
Chinese Journal of Medical Science Research Management
IV. Prevalence Study Methods Taking colleges, affiliated (teaching) hospitals, and cloud applications as typical RCP regional units, the existing local area network interaction methods between the cloud and universities and affiliated (teaching) hospitals are established to realize remote work in the network environment, remote medical imaging, psychological and ethical consultation and interaction; applying multi-agent propagation model based on complex network, combining Global Positioning System (GPS), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and electronic fence technology, to realize the risk classification and early warning of units and personnel in the area.
2020 Wang et al Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China
Cell Discovery
IV. Computer Model Cooperation has been established with other countries and international organizations.
2020-01-23 Corman et al Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study

To show that the assays can detect other bat-associated SARS-related viruses, we used the E gene assay to test six batderived faecal samples available from Drexler et al.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity achieved through coordination of academic and public laboratories in national and European research networks.

The speed and effectiveness of the present deployment and evaluation effort were enabled by national and European research networks established in response to international health crises in recent years, demonstrating the enormous response capacity that can be released through coordinated action of academic and public laboratories .
2020-02-05 McCloskey et al SARS to novel coronavirus – old lessons and new lessons
Epidemiology and Infection
IV. Prevalence Study Organisations such as the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the Global Research Collaboration For Infectious Disease Preparedness (GloPID-R) and the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) have been supported by the WHO Research Blueprint and its Global Coordinating Mechanism to provide a forum where those with the expertise and capacity to contribute to managing new threats can come together both between and during outbreaks to develop innovative solutions to emerging problems.

The international networks and forums that now exist have facilitated the bringing together of expertise from around the world to focus research and development efforts and maximise the impact.
2020-02-12 Ung et al Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study Community pharmacists in one of the first areas that had confirmed cases of the viral infection, Macau, joined the collaborative force in supporting the local health emergency preparedness and response arrangements.
2020-02-14 Di Marco et al Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
IV. Prevalence Study Policies to promote research on these interactions could provide ways to better estimate the likely return on investment of more integrated SDG planning, guide efforts to achieve initiatives such as the GHSA Strategic Plan, and better monitor global progress on EID risk mitigation.
2020-02-14 Marty et al The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a one health issue
One Health
IV. Prevalence Study One Health approaches attempt to strategize the coordinated efforts of multiple overlapping disciplines , including environmental surveillance and environmental health.
2020-02-22 Nekrutenko et al No more business as usual: agile and effective responses to emerging pathogen threats require open data and open analytics
biorxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

This potentially adaptive change was not observed in the other two samples and lack of raw read data prevented us from identifying it in other geographically and temporally distributed samples.
Here we show that community efforts in developing open analytical software tools over the past ten years, combined with national investments into scientific computational infrastructure, can overcome these deficiencies and provide an accessible platform for tackling global health emergencies in an open and transparent manner.
2020-02-23 Zhai et al From Isolation to Coordination: How Can Telemedicine Help Combat the COVID-19 Outbreak?
medrxiv
IV. Other The platform could aggregate COVID-19 patient records across 126 connected hospitals and rapidly expand to enable open collaborations with key stakeholders such as government authorities, research institutions and laboratories.
2020-02-29 Zhao et al Modelling the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak on the Diamond Princess ship using the public surveillance data from January 20 to February 20, 2020
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the Diamond Princess ship has caused over 634 cases as of February 20, 2020.
DH was supported by an Alibaba-Hong Kong Polytechnic University Collaborative Research project.
2020-03-02 Brennan et al Responding to health emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean region in times of conflict
The Lancet
IV. Other WHO's global COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan 13 therefore prioritises countries with weak health systems for technical and operational support from international partners.

WHO's global COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan13 therefore prioritises countries with weak health systems for technical and operational support from international partners.

15 Humanitarian agencies have adopted various approaches to address these constraints, including investments in local partners, cross-border operations, deconfliction, remote programming, and scaled up advocacy and humanitarian diplomacy.
2020-03-04 Chang et al Weaponized Interdependence: China's Economic Statecraft and Social Penetration against Taiwan
Orbis
IV. Prevalence Study For example, China established a global network of Confucius Institutes all over the world to host cultural, educational, and academic exchange programs.
2020-03-05 Wilder-Smith et al Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
The Lancet Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study

On Feb 18, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published their data of the first 72 314 patients including 44 672 patients with confirmed COVID19.
Organisations such as the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and the Global Research Collaboration For Infectious Disease Preparedness, supported by the WHO Research Blueprint and its Global Coordinating Mechanism, were able to accelerate the outbreak response and rapidly initiate technical platforms for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.
2020-03-15 Yi et al COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Prevalence Study

On February 11, 2020, a multi-center study on 8,866 patients including 4,021 confirmed COVID-19 patients presented a more updated illustration of the epidemic as follows ( UlBi-HX_rHPXa1qHA2bhdA).
The psychological support should include the establishment of multidisciplinary mental health teams, clear communications with regular and accurate updates about the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and treatment plans and the use of professional electronic devices and applications to avoid close contact with each other .
2020-03-15 Deng et al The global battle against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Prevalence Study

Just in about 2.5 months, COVID-19 has been spreading quickly to over 140 countries, infected more than 156,000 people, ranging from newborn to 98 years of age, and killed at least 5,800 patients, mostly in Wuhan, Hubei province of China.
Emergency psychological teams have been urgently established at regional and national levels and provided mental health services for those in need as part of the overall deployment of the disease control .
2020-03-16 Nicastri et al National Institute for the Infectious Diseases “L. Spallanzani”, IRCCS. Recommendations for COVID-19 clinical management
Infect Dis Rep
IV. Prevalence Study

Moreover, emerging reports from China suggests that chloroquine has shown a superiority in reducing both the severity and the duration of clinical disease without significant adverse events in almost one hundred patients.
Procedures described in the present document are applied in agreement with the "Regional Network for the Infectious Diseases", the "Regional Hospital and Medical Specialties Network" and with the active cooperation of the "Regional Agency for the Health Emergencies -ARES 118".
2020-03-17 Buckee et al Improving epidemic surveillance and response: big data is dead, long live big data
The Lancet Digital Health
IV. Computer Model Regional or local teams with analytical training and ongoing relationships with government and industry partners should lead to flexible modelling approaches that leverage large curated datasets and international analytical expertise, building on collaborations developed when there are no emerging or ongoing outbreaks.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study This coordination and collaboration is reinforced by the introduction of voluntary IHR external evaluation processes, including Joint External Evaluations, which have successfully brought multiple sectors together around common plans for national preparedness capacity building.
2020-03-18 Jacobsen et al Will COVID-19 generate global preparedness?
The Lancet
IV. Other Preparedness for emerging infectious diseases requires strengthening health systems and developing response plans that account for the social, environmental, political, and institutional factors that can either support or disrupt emergency management efforts.
2020-03-19 Zhao et al A systematic approach is needed to contain COVID-19 globally
Science Bulletin
IV. Prevalence Study At global scale, beyond the WHO, collaborative international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) should unite different subordinate departments to cooperatively develop global management plans, thereby suggesting countermeasures for countries.
2020-03-20 Kriz et al Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Industrial Marketing Management
III-3. Time Series Analysis

The wicked problem sessions attract over 40 participants (policy, practitioners, academics), with action research/ learning sessions limited to approximately 12 participants (practitioners and researchers).
Each case uses overarching educational goals and processes to integrate mindsets, interests and approaches of social, research and practice stakeholders, bridging and advancing understanding across the three domains of research, practice and social stakeholder while delivering valuable outcomes to each.

Regional Industry Training -Broaden community exposure to education -Adds value to regional systems and clusters -Lifts quality of regional thinking -Increased enterprise and regional value -Growth for individual enterprises -Experience of action learning to improve business outcomes -Familiarisation with new frameworks -Opportunities for action research -Improved likelihood of successful Linkage and ARC partnership grants -Opportunity to test current theory in practice -Ensures needs of regions inform educators, management and marketing schools and universities -Builds two-way links and bonds across respective domains A. Kriz, et al.

The program has gradually expanded to include other educational institutions in Canberra.

In 2014, the ACT Government launched the Canberra Innovation Network (CBRIN) to further consolidate collaborations between local government, innovators and education and research institutions.

The four cases described are customised to the ANU management school philosophy but are examples of initiatives increasingly offered by a range of Australian universities in programs encouraging more interactive theory-practice work integrated learning (WIL).

The projects have yielded rich research insights into the growth strategies of local companies across multiple industries as well as accelerating their development in practice by embedding novel strategic frameworks into the local business ecosystem.

The New Venture Creation course has provided important innovation skills and encouraged student teams to create and kick-start real ventures built around team capabilities, analysis of combined resources and clarification of a feasible opportunity.
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other For larger health systems, wellness committees and employee assistance programs are the logical resources to organize these interventions.
2020-03-23 Jin et al Development and Evaluation of an AI System for COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

A large dataset was constructed by collecting 970 CT volumes of 496 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 260 negative cases from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, and 1,125 negative cases from two publicly available chest CT datasets.
The Lung Image Database Consortium Image collection (LIDC-IDRI) is a collaboration between seven academic centers and eight medical imaging companies initiated by the national cancer institute (NCI) in the United States.
2020-03-24 Wigginton et al Environmental Engineers and Scientists Have Important Roles to Play in Stemming Outbreaks and Pandemics Caused by Enveloped Viruses
Environ Sci Technol
IV. Other Environmental engineers and scientists are well positioned to apply their unique skill sets and experience with interdisciplinary research to address these needs.
2020-03-24 Felice Francesca et al The impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on head and neck cancer patients’ care
Radiotherapy and Oncology
IV. Prevalence Study In order to assist shared decision-making, multidisciplinary team meetings should be promoted using web-platforms.
2020-03-27 Liu et al Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
IV. Other We also believe that children's access to mental health services can be improved through collaborative networks that are established nationwide and consist of psychiatrists, psychotherapists, researchers, and community volunteers.
2020-03-27 Kang et al Critical Care for Patients with Severe Covid-19 in Sichuan Province, China: Provincial Cohort Study
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Results: Out of 539 confirmed Covid-19 patients, 81 severe cases (15.0%) were identified.
Remote multidisciplinary consultation was arranged to discuss complex patients daily.
2020-03-28 Tan et al The cardiovascular burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on congenital heart disease
International Journal of Cardiology
IV. Other It is imperative that individual programs, in concert with regional, national, and global organizations, work together to ensure data are gathered on the number of patients tested, those diagnosed with the infection, and their outcomes.
2020-03-29 Venkatakrishnan et al Knowledge synthesis from 100 million biomedical documents augments the deep expression profiling of coronavirus receptors
biorxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

This observation was corroborated by complementary gene expression analysis of over 250,000 bulk RNA-seq samples from GTEx 23, 24 and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) along with protein expression analysis from healthy tissue proteomics and immunohistochemistry (IHC) datasets , where lung and other respiratory tissues consistently show lower ACE2 expression compared to the digestive tract and kidney (Figure S3A-D) .
As we do so, we encourage interactive feedback from the scientific community so that this platform can evolve to optimally support the research needs across the biomedical ecosystem, beyond the COVID-19 focus on the current study.
2020-03-30 Ferstad et al A model to forecast regional demand for COVID-19 related hospital beds
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model When considering the limited healthcare resources anticipated, the need for strengthening collaborative operational planning and research between institutions and across the public and private sectors is paramount.
2020-04-30 Djalante et al Building resilience against biological hazards and pandemics: COVID-19 and its implications for the Sendai Framework
Progress in Disaster Science
IV. Prevalence Study AHA Centre is an inter-governmental organisation which aims to facilitate cooperation and coordination among ASEAN Member States and with the United Nations and international organisations for disaster management and emergency response in ASEAN region.
2020-04-30 Shah et al A commentary on “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)”
International Journal of Surgery
IV. Other Containment of the COVID-19 is critical, and it is only possible through the joint and coordinated efforts and cooperation between diverse stakeholders at local, national and global levels.
2020-05-31 Friedman et al She Ji: The Next Five Years
She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation
IV. Other In the first editorial, we considered the "interdisciplinary gap where professional fields and research disciplines should meet," offering to "examine the intersection of design, economics, and innovation in various combinations, from various perspectives, and using the methods and methodological frameworks of the many disciplines that contribute to the necessarily interdisciplinary design field.

5 Efforts to develop qualitative assessment frameworks to systematically collect information related to local barriers and enablers for the uptake and adherence to public health measures for prevention and control. This includes the rapid identification of the secondary impacts of these measures. (e.g. use of surgical masks, modification of health seeking behaviors for SRH, school closures)

5.0.0.1 Highlights

5.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 XUE et al Surgical management strategies for orthopedic trauma patients under epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia
Chinese Journal of Trauma
IV. Other Based on the characteristics of such patients and related diagnosis and treatment experiences during the epidemic of NCP, the authors formulate the surgical management strategies for orthopedic trauma patients.
2020-02-10 Li et al A qualitative study of zoonotic risk factors among rural communities in southern China
Int Health
IV. Prevalence Study

We aimed to obtain a minimum sample size of 20 participants from each of the three provinces, for a total sample size of over 60 participants.
28 At the individual level, both risk and protective factors were analysed in terms of the individuals' knowledge, attitudes and practices to better understand the risk factors for identifying context-based strategies.
2020-02-11 Blumberg et al Assessing the plausibility of subcritical transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States
medrxiv
IV. Other Variation in climate, population density, demographics, social interactions, health care access and public health interventions can all affect transmission.
2020-02-20 Qian et al Psychological responses, behavioral changes and public perceptions during the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China: a population based cross-sectional survey
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

17, 18 Before our survey, Wuhan confirmed 3,215 cases, 19 accounting for 27.3% of all cases across China; 20 Shanghai reported 153 cases, 68 (44.4%) of them from nonlocal residents.
These polices are also responsible for the limited observed heterogeneity in uptake and changes of precautionary behaviors.

These models adjusting for personal characteristics were then used to investigate associations between perception variables and primary outcomes.
2020-02-20 Maier et al Effective containment explains sub-exponential growth in confirmed cases of recent COVID-19 outbreak in Mainland China
medrxiv
IV. Other First, we assume that general public containment policies or individual behavioral changes in response to the epidemic effectively remove individuals from the interaction dynamics or significantly reduce their participation in the transmission dynamics.
2020-02-21 Wong et al The role of institutional trust in preventive and treatment-seeking behaviors during the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak among residents in Hubei, China
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

Most 204 participants (85.7%, n = 3,640) reported that they would seek treatment at the hospital, 205 whereas 42% (n = 1,782) reported that they would seek traditional healing, and 62.4% 550) of participants who were in the quarantine area reported no intention of seeking 215 treatment in the hospital.
The level of trust in information provision and preventive instructions, individual preventive behaviors and treatment-seeking behaviors were queried.
2020-02-24 Gostic et al Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19
eLife
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Depending on the screening strategy (arrival, departure or both) and assumed subclinical fraction (5%, 25%, or 50%), the probability of detecting at least the first two cases ranged from 0.02 to 0.11, and the probability of detecting three or more cases was never better than 0.04 ( Figure 3C ).
Yet the quantitative performance of different policies matters for planning interventions and will influence how public health authorities prioritize different measures as the international and domestic context changes.
2020-02-27 Kwok et al Community responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hong Kong: risk perception, information exposure and preventive measures
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Respondent demographics, anxiety level, risk perception, sources to retrieve COVID-19 information, actual adoption and perceived efficacy of precautionary measures were collected.

The timely psychological and behavioral assessment of the community is useful to inform subsequent interventions and risk communication strategies as the epidemic progresses.
2020-03-03 Song et al An epidemiological forecast model and software assessing interventions on COVID-19 epidemic in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study Many forms of human interventions that are altering the transmission rate over time include (i) individuallevel protective measures such as wearing masks and safety glasses, using hygiene, and taking inhome isolation, and (ii) community-level quarantines such as hospitalization for infected cases, city blockade, traffic control and restricted social activities, and so on.
2020-03-05 Johnson et al Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
Euro Surveill
IV. Prevalence Study Risk communication messages should include clear justifications for any changes to the public health measures being implemented, as well as the critical importance of adherence to any such measures that may restrict personal freedom, such as quarantine or self-isolation.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Other Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
2020-03-06 Dai et al Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study 6 questions were set to evaluate the participants' risk perception of COVID-19, and a General Health Questionnaire was used to identify the participants' immediate psychological status.

Risk perception and psychological status were compared by demographic characteristics and COVID-19 exposure experiences.
2020-03-06 sun et al Study of the mental health status of medical personnel dealing with new coronavirus pneumonia
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Among 138 patients admitted consecutively from January 1 to 28, 2020, to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, the proportion of medical personnel was as high as 29% .
Objective: This paper studied the relationship between personality traits and mental health conditions of medical personnel to provide a basis and reference for the implementation of targeted education on mental health.
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other To our knowledge, there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of COVID-19 on nurses' emotional responses and coping strategies.
2020-03-10 Chan et al Research Frontiers of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: What Do We Know So Far?
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study Not only will such knowledge facilitate a better understanding of new emerging diseases, but also identify treatments, enable a better uptake of community health protection behaviours, examine the usefulness of modern public health measures, and evaluate the effectiveness of technology innovation in health protection; it will also serve to remind researchers, academic, and policy makers that the landscape of Health-EDRM-related research is constantly evolving with global crises and emergencies.
2020-03-13 Bhagavathula et al Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Knowledge and Perceptions: A Survey of Healthcare Workers
medrxiv
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 529 HCWs participated, 453 of whom completed the study questionnaire (85.6% response rate), including 234 (51.6%) men and 219 (48.3%) women; most of the participants were below 44 years of age (82.4%).
The survey covered the domains of HCW characteristics, awareness, information sources, knowledge and perceptions related to COVID-19.
2020-03-13 Zhang et al Prediction of the COVID-19 outbreak based on a realistic stochastic model
medrxiv
IV. Other For the purpose of control and prevention, various containment measures have been implemented by the Chinese authorities, including traffic restrictions, medical tracking, entry or exit screening, isolation, quarantine and awareness campaigns since January 19, 2020.
2020-03-13 Jombart et al Inferring the number of COVID-19 cases from recently reported deaths
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis In such situations, efforts focusing on social distancing measures such as school closures and self-isolation may be more likely to mitigate epidemic spread.
2020-03-15 Zhong et al Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey
Int J Biol Sci
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

A total of 6919 participants completed the survey questionnaire.
People's adherence to control measures is affected by their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19.

We also analyzed the characteristics of KAP towards COVID-19 and identified some demographic factors associated with KAP; these findings are useful for public health policy-makers and health workers to recognize target populations for COVID-19 prevention and health education.
2020-03-17 Adhikari et al Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review
Infect Dis Poverty
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

In China, 11 791 cases were confirmed and 17 988 cases were suspected in 34 provinces as of 24:00, 31 January 2020 (Fig.
Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission.
2020-03-17 Bedford et al COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Most national response strategies include varying levels of contact tracing and self-isolation or quarantine; promotion of public health measures, including handwashing, respiratory etiquette, and social distancing; preparation of health systems for a surge of severely ill patients who require isolation, oxygen, and mechanical ventilation; strengthening health facility infection prevention and control, with special attention to nursing home facilities; and postponement or cancellation of large-scale public gatherings.
2020-03-17 Wang et al Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Preventive measures for COVID-19, including case and contact tracing, quarantine and screening, as well as education to encourage good hand hygiene practices, should be in place.
2020-03-18 Kandel et al Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 16, 17, 22 This method includes scaling up public awareness of behaviours such as hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette, communicating and engaging with local communities about the risks of the outbreak, and putting in place effective public health response measures.
2020-03-20 Zhao et al Chinese Public Attention to COVID-19 Epidemic: Based on Social Media
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study This approach is used to obtain timely access to public responses so that the government and the health department can better communicate with the public on health issues and take appropriate measures to prevent and control the epidemic 35, 39 .

The content analysis of social networks can identify people's attitudes or reactions to specific health hazard events 30, 39 .
2020-03-20 Rossman et al A framework for identifying regional outbreak and spread of COVID-19 from one-minute population-wide surveys
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

To this date, March 21st, 18pm, there have been 54,059 responses, including 50,572 (93.55%) adults and 3,488 (6.45%) children.
strategies depend on many factors, including the local spread of COVID-19, healthcare system resources, economical and political factors, public adherence and their perception of the situation.
2020-03-23 Wen et al Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Shenzhen, the largest migrant city of China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

In total, there were 29 (7.0%) pediatric patients aged below 15 years, of whom 26 were identified by surveillance and 28 were cases from clusters.
Our results can be used to improve the prediction of transmission risk, design and implementation of intervention measures and strategies, and assessments of intervention effectiveness in similar settings.
2020-03-23 Wang et al Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of public health measures to control COVID-19: a modelling study
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different public health measures and provide the suggestions and assist decision and policy makers in making better decisions and resources allocations in the fight with COVID-19 outbreak.
2020-03-23 Lai et al Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019
JAMA Netw Open
III-2. Cross Sectional Control Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019
2020-03-25 Prem et al The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

Each simulation started with 200 or 2000 infectious individuals I 0 , 15 with the rest of the population being in the susceptible state.
11 Models that assess the effectiveness of physical distancing interventions, such as school closure, need to account for social structures and heterogeneities in mixing of individuals.
2020-03-26 Carico et al Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other The HBM has been used for decades to study vaccination, medication adherence, diabetes self-care, condom use, and other behaviors that require modification of a patient's actions to mitigate a threat to health.

These public health frameworks can act as a "checklist" that pharmacists and other healthcare professionals can use to guide their communication and reinforce healthy behaviors.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
03 Although not regulatory in scope, these guidelines support infection prevention and control (IP&C) professionals, health care organizations and health care providers in developing, implementing and evaluating IP&C policies, procedures and programs to improve the quality and safety of health care and patient outcomes.

All staff in a residential care facility should receive general education on policies, including the principles of infection prevention and control.

While only two or more CPGs recommended these infection control measures: policies and procedures for visitors, staff and/or residents (n=9), respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette (n=9), providing supplies (n=9), staff and/or residents education (n=8), increasing communication (n=6), consulting or notifying health professionals (n=6), appropriate ventilation practices (n=2), and cohorting equipment (n=2).
2020-03-26 Viswanath et al Working through the COVID-19 outbreak: Rapid review and recommendations for MSK and allied heath personnel
Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
IV. Other We discuss the issues revolving personal protection of musculoskeletal (MSK) healthcare workers, non-operative management of musculoskeletal conditions, remote consultations, trauma escalation stages, staff wellbeing and orthopaedic surgery for COVID-19 cases.
2020-03-27 Hsiang et al The Effect of Large-Scale Anti-Contagion Policies on the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

We did not collect city level health outcomes recorded prior to January 24, 2020 in provinces that had fewer than ten confirmed cases at that date.
The reduced-form statistical techniques we use are designed to measure the total magnitude of the effect of changes in policy, without attempting to explain the origin of baseline growth rates or the specific epidemiological mechanisms linking policy changes to infection growth rates (see Methods).
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study When infectious disease outbreaks, various countries adopt public health intervention policies, in which one is to control human contacts, such as isolation, quarantine, and social distancing; the other is to control population mobility, such as travel restrictions.
2020-03-30 Barari et al Evaluating COVID-19 Public Health Messaging in Italy: Self-Reported Compliance and Growing Mental Health Concerns
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study The survey proceeded by then asking respondents for their beliefs, social perceptions, and perceived efficacy about government and/or public safety measures.

These interventions could include virtual social interactions, such as online social reading activities, classes, exercise routines, among others - all designed to reduce the boredom of being socially isolated for long periods of time and to increase the attractiveness of following public health recommendations.
2020-03-31 Rosenthal et al Impacts of COVID-19 on vulnerable children in temporary accommodation in the UK
The Lancet Public Health
IV. Prevalence Study

In 2019, the charity Shelter reported that a child loses their home every 8 min in Great Britain, which is the equivalent of 183 children per day.
Another issue is that no face-to-face contact with general practitioners and health outreach services is available, including health visitors, which limits routine checks such as early identification of need and risk, health and development reviews with screening assessments, immunisations, promotion of social and emotional development, support for parenting, promotion of health and behavioural change, prevention of obesity, and promotion of breastfeeding.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other As governments tighten border controls and implement other measures in response to COVID-19, they need to consider the impacts on refugees and migrants and ensure that such actions do not prevent people from accessing safety, health-care services, and information.
2020-04-01 Shayak et al Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 and Impact on Public Health Policy
medrxiv
IV. Computer Model A mathematical analysis of the consequences of public health policy is Reference which predicts the effects of various kinds of social distancing measures such as school closures and social isolation of the high-risk senior citizens.

Such interventions include adopting hygienic measures, social distancing, travel restrictions, quarantine and case isolation.
2020-04-30 Asmundson et al How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
Journal of Anxiety Disorders
IV. Other Psychological factors are known to play a vital role in the success of public health strategies used to manage epidemics and pandemics; that is, risk communication, vaccination and antiviral therapy, hygiene practices, and social distancing.

Accordingly, it is critical that public health decision-makers, health authorities, and health care providers across disciplines understand how health anxiety will influence responses to viral outbreaks, including current responses to COVID-19.

6 Efforts to identify how the burden of responding to the outbreak and implementing public health measures affects the physical and psychological health of those providing care for Covid-19 patients and identify the immediate needs that must be addressed.

6.0.0.1 Highlights

6.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Liebrenz et al Caring for persons in detention suffering with mental illness during the Covid-19 outbreak
Forensic Science International: Mind and Law
IV. Other They must try: -Preserving continuity in provision of psychiatric and psychological care to individuals in detention is imperative and should remain so during the Covid-19 outbreak.
2020-02-07 Patel et al Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak — United States, December 31, 2019–February 4, 2020
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
IV. Other Health care providers should identify patients who might have been exposed and who have signs or symptoms related to 2019-nCoV infection, isolate these patients, and inform public health departments.
2020-02-14 Roosa et al Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020
Infect Dis Model
IV. Computer Model These predictions can include estimates of expected morbidity burden that can help guide public health officials preparing the medical care and other resources needed to confront the epidemic.
2020-02-19 Liu et al Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other These findings are important in enabling health authorities to allocate health resources and develop appropriate treatments for medical staff who have mental health problems.
2020-02-21 Kobayashi et al Communicating the Risk of Death from Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
J Clin Med
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Out of 218 cases, there are 10 critically ill patients as of 15 February 2020.
In the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, health authorities must cope with the uncertainty in the risk of death from COVID-19, and high-risk individuals should be identified using approaches that can address the abovementioned three problems.
2020-02-28 Bao et al 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society

7 Peking University is preparing a mental health handbook for the public that describes how to deal with stress and other psychological problems occurring due to the outbreak of 2019-nCoV.
2020-02-29 Huang et al Clinical characteristics of 36 non-survivors with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
medrxiv
IV. Other 8 Mortality rate of COVID-19 can be reduced, by timely identifying those who are at higher risk of developing into critically ill patients, closely monitoring changes of their disease course, and applying intensive care treatment to these patients.
2020-03-06 Wang et al Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China
Int J Environ Res Public Health
IV. Other Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
2020-03-06 Qiu et al A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations
Gen Psychiatr
IV. Prevalence Study The main purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence and severity of this psychological distress, gauge the current mental health burden on society, and therefore provide a concrete basis for tailoring and implementing relevant mental health intervention policies to cope with this challenge efficiently and effectively.

Findings of this study suggest the following recommendations for future interventions: more attention needs to be paid to vulnerable groups such as the young, the elderly, women and migrant workers; accessibility to medical resources and the public health service system should be further strengthened and improved, particularly after reviewing the initial coping and management of the COVID-19 epidemic; nationwide strategic planning and coordination for psychological first aid during major disasters, potentially delivered through telemedicine, should be established and a comprehensive crisis prevention and intervention system including epidemiological monitoring, screening, referral and targeted intervention should be built to reduce psychological distress and prevent further mental health problems.
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other Hospitals should focus on providing psychological support to nurses and providing timely psychological assistance and training in coping strategies.
2020-03-13 Tang et al Lessons drawn from China and South Korea for managing COVID-19 epidemic: insights from a comparative modeling study
medrxiv
IV. Other How differentiation and combination of these interventions within a coherent and systematic package of public health measures contributes to different outbreak outcomes is an urgent global health issue that must be addressed in order to ensure that lessons from countries that have early experienced COVID-19 outbreak can be learnt by other countries in their preparedness and management of a likely pandemic.
2020-03-13 Verity et al Estimates of the severity of COVID-19 disease
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

We used data from 169 recovered individuals with reported recovery dates and reported/imputed onset dates to estimate the onset to recovery distribution.
Assessing the severity of COVID-19 is critical to determine both the appropriateness of mitigation strategies and to enable planning for healthcare needs as epidemics unfold.
2020-03-15 Li et al Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other According to the Principle, psychological crisis interventions include three key points: 1) understanding the mental health status in different populations influenced by the COVID-19 outbreak; 2) identifying people who are at high risk of suicide and aggression, and 3) providing appropriate psychological interventions for those in need.

This notice suggested that: 1) mental health institutions should address prevention of nosocomial infections; 2) relevant departments should provide timely treatment and care for SMI patients infected with COVID-19, and 3) township/subdistrict-level integrated mental health management unit should provide management, treatment and community care for SMI patients at home.
2020-03-16 Zhang et al Health, distress, and life satisfaction of people one-month into COVID-19 outbreak in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

At the time of the survey, 99 (26.8%) were going to work at their office; 93 (25.2%) had stopped working; and 139 (37.7%) resorted to working from home; 32 (8.7%) participants had not been working before the outbreak started; and 6 (1.6%) reported losing their work during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Such identification can help to prioritize those who might need more help, and psychologists, mental health professionals and social workers can provide services to start addressing at least the mental health issues, even during the lockdown.
2020-03-17 Wang et al Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic
The Lancet
IV. Other Preparedness is the key to navigating any public health crisis, and malariaendemic countries must be prepared for the challenges that COVID-19 might bring while minimising disruption to malaria control.
2020-03-20 Zhao et al Chinese Public Attention to COVID-19 Epidemic: Based on Social Media
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study These findings can help the government and health departments better communicate with the public about public health and then translate public health needs into practice to create targeted measures to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19.

These findings can help the government and health departments better communicate with the public on health and translate public health needs into practice to create targeted measures to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19.

This study analyzes the public's response to and attention given to the COVID-19 epidemic, which will help public health professionals monitor public response, identify public needs as early as possible, make timely public health prevention and control measures, and disseminate knowledge to citizens in a targeted manner to better respond to the current COVID-19 epidemic.

This approach is used to obtain timely access to public responses so that the government and the health department can better communicate with the public on health issues and take appropriate measures to prevent and control the epidemic 35, 39 .
2020-03-20 Dewey et al Supporting Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ann Intern Med
IV. Other Health care organizations can provide information on managing stress, reducing burnout, and identifying mental health professionals available to support clinicians .
2020-03-24 Chavez et al Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A primer for emergency physicians
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
IV. Prevalence Study

60 One study of 204 patients with confirmed COVID-19 suggests 48.5% of patients have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.
Emergency physicians should focus on identifying patients at risk, isolating suspected patients, and informing hospital infection prevention and public health authorities.
2020-03-26 Rios et al Guidelines for preventing respiratory illness in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: A rapid review of clinical practice guidelines
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

If one or more respiratory samples from ILI cases in a suspected outbreak returns a positive laboratory result for influenza, then an influenza outbreak is confirmed.
03 Although not regulatory in scope, these guidelines support infection prevention and control (IP&C) professionals, health care organizations and health care providers in developing, implementing and evaluating IP&C policies, procedures and programs to improve the quality and safety of health care and patient outcomes.
2020-03-27 Wenbao et al Transmission dynamics of SARS-COV-2 in China: impact of public health interventions
medrxiv
IV. Other However, the impact of the public health interventions in China needs to be evaluated.
2020-03-27 Kang et al Critical Care for Patients with Severe Covid-19 in Sichuan Province, China: Provincial Cohort Study
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis

Results: Out of 539 confirmed Covid-19 patients, 81 severe cases (15.0%) were identified.
Prioritizing and providing basic care for severe Covid-19 patients should be considered by healthcare providers in early stage.
2020-03-30 Dong et al Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Methods: A total of 144 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study.
More psychological care and health attention needs to be given to these critically ill patients.

The significant factors found in the present study may draw medical workers paying more attention to the mental health of patients with COVID-19, and psychological care and timely intervention are needed for patients during the epidemic.

This study may draw more attention to the psychological state of patients with COVID-19, and assist doctors to provide more appropriate treatment and psychological interventions to improve mental and physical health of patients during the campaign to contain and eradicate COVID-19.
2020-03-30 Kang et al Impact on Mental Health and Perceptions of Psychological Care among Medical and Nursing Staff in Wuhan during the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak: a Cross-sectional Study
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
III-2. Cross Sectional Control

In total, 994 participants, including 183 (18.4%) doctors and 811 (81.6%) nurses, completed the survey.
Therefore, we explore the mental health status of medical and nursing staff in Wuhan, the efficacy of the psychological care accessed, and their psychological care needs.

The questionnaire consists of six parts: basic demographic data, mental health assessment, risks of direct and indirect exposure to COVID-19, mental healthcare services accessed, psychological needs, and self-perceived health status compared to that before the COVID-19 outbreak.

Medical and nursing staff differed in terms of how they wanted to obtain services based on their levels of mental health problems.
2020-03-30 Burns et al Symptom-Based Isolation Policies: Evidence from a Mathematical Model of Outbreaks of Influenza and COVID-19
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis Policymakers tackling the influenza and COVID-19 outbreaks should consider implementing these policies for controlling outbreaks in schools and other settings.
2020-03-30 Lin et al Which Measures are Effective in Containing COVID-19? Empirical Research Based on Prevention and Control Cases in China
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study When a suspected traveler from West Africa who are symptomatic is quarantined, the isolation facilities must be optimal, which means providing physical, social and psychological support for all persons quarantined and quality personal protective equipment must be provided for health care providers Although there are lots of searches on public health policies to deal with infectious diseases.
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other The observations of mental health consequences and measures taken during the 2003 SARS outbreak could help inform health authorities and the public to provide mental health interventions to those who are in need.

Timely mental health care needs to be developed urgently.

Timely psychiatric treatments should be provided for those presenting with more severe mental health problems.
2020-03-31 Kluge et al Refugee and migrant health in the COVID-19 response
The Lancet
IV. Other As governments tighten border controls and implement other measures in response to COVID-19, they need to consider the impacts on refugees and migrants and ensure that such actions do not prevent people from accessing safety, health-care services, and information.
2020-03-31 Pan et al Lessons learned from the 2019-nCoV epidemic on prevention of future infectious diseases
Microbes and Infection
IV. Other Learning from the effective measures used and problems encountered in the prevention and control of this epidemic, the government is likely to set up an emergency decision-making organization when responding to future public health emergencies.
2020-03-31 Kang et al The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other The local government of Wuhan has implemented policies to address these mental health problems.
2020-03-31 Udwadia et al How to protect the protectors: 10 lessons to learn for doctors fighting the COVID-19 Coronavirus
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
II. Randomized Controlled Trial Emotional needs of HCWs must not be ignored: health care workers at the frontline of COVID-19 are under extreme physical and mental stress.
2020-03-31 Cadogan et al On the frontline against COVID-19: Community pharmacists’ contribution during a public health crisis
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study This article seeks to highlight additional roles and activities to those relating to the public health response (as outlined in Table 1 ) that can be undertaken by community pharmacists and could help to alleviate pressure on general practice and other areas of the health service.
2020-04-01 Xie et al Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus — an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
IV. Prevalence Study Awareness of the biological features of 2019-nCoV should be updated in time and needs to be comprehensively summarized to help optimize control measures and make therapeutic decisions.
2020-04-30 Carvalho et al The psychiatric impact of the novel coronavirus outbreak
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other timely mental health care needs to be developed urgently.
2020-04-30 Asmundson et al How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
Journal of Anxiety Disorders
IV. Other Accordingly, it is critical that public health decision-makers, health authorities, and health care providers across disciplines understand how health anxiety will influence responses to viral outbreaks, including current responses to COVID-19.

In the meantime, basic knowledge of how high and low levels of health anxiety will impact behaviour as it relates to strategies for containing and mitigating viral spread is important for all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professional and needs to be communicated to the public in an effort to curb maladaptive or irresponsible decisions that may negatively impact these efforts.
2020-04-30 Wang et al A contingency plan for the management of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in neonatal intensive care units
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
IV. Prevalence Study

About 100 children were affected, with the youngest being 30 h after birth.
Medical staff should be provided with adequate psychological support, as their physical and mental health is crucial in the context of a virus outbreak.
2020-05-31 Lima et al The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease)
Psychiatry Research
IV. Other Conclusions: : Most health professionals working in isolation units and hospitals do not receive any training for providing mental health care.

Conclusions : Most health professionals working in isolation units and hospitals do not receive any training for providing mental health care.

7 Efforts to identify the underlying drivers of fear, anxiety and stigma that fuel misinformation and rumor, particularly through social media.

7.0.0.1 Highlights

7.0.0.2 Articles

Date Authors Title LOE(?) & Sample Matches
2020 Xu et al Management of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19): the Zhejiang experience
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
IV. Other Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19.
2020-02-11 Khan et al Novel coronavirus: how things are in Wuhan
Clinical Microbiology and Infection
IV. Other Psychological counselling is now available to handle the anxiety and fear among patients.
2020-02-20 Ling et al COVID-19: A critical care perspective informed by lessons learnt from other viral epidemics
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine
IV. Other Clear concise communication and leadership are critical to tackle stress, fear, fake news and mistrust during the crisis .
2020-02-26 Ren et al Fear can be more harmful than the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in controlling the corona virus disease 2019 epidemic
World J Clin Cases
IV. Other Likewise, government authorities in every country should cooperate with China to oppose stigma, language abuse and discrimination caused by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and strictly abide by disciplines and laws stress that our enemy is SARS-CoV-2 rather than the fear and stigma.

As the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Director of Global Infectious Hazard Preparedness Sylvie Briand said, "Fear and stigma go together and when people fear, they tend to stigmatize some groups and what we try to do is to reduce this fear" .
2020-03-03 Malta et al The coronavirus 2019-nCoV epidemic: Is hindsight 20/20?
EClinicalMedicine
IV. Prevalence Study Efforts to address this scenario in the COVID-19 and future epidemics need to consider traditional and social media communication, among other sources of information to curtail misinformation and prejudice.

As with any infectious disease emergency, public health officials need also to address the epidemic of fear.
2020-03-03 Yang et al The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
Journal of Autoimmunity
IV. Prevalence Study

In Wang's study , of the 36 patients in the ICU, four patients received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 patients received non-invasive ventilation, and 17 patients received invasive ventilation (four patients switched to ECMO).
Anxiety and fear often exist in suspected or confirmed patients.
2020-03-06 Habibi et al Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study Responses that are anchored in fear, misinformation, racism, and xenophobia will not save us from outbreaks like COVID-19.
2020-03-06 sun et al Study of the mental health status of medical personnel dealing with new coronavirus pneumonia
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study

Among 138 patients admitted consecutively from January 1 to 28, 2020, to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, the proportion of medical personnel was as high as 29% .
Other symptoms such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation are all normal psychological reactions in the handling of emergencies and environmental stimuli.

The 10 factors include somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, sleep, and diet.
2020-03-08 Qi et al The Evaluation of Sleep Disturbances for Chinese Frontline Medical Workers under the Outbreak of COVID-19
medrxiv
IV. Prevalence Study 11 A 10-items VAS measure was used to investigate emotional status of subjects, including work pressure, attention, anxiety, energy, confidence, irritability, stress, impatience, fear, and depression.
2020-03-08 Huang et al Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during COVID-19 outbreak
medrxiv
IV. Other Women were significantly higher than men in terms of anxiety (t =-3.62, P = 0.000) and fear (t (314.44) = 5.17, P = 0.000).

In subsequent analysis, it was found that anxiety, fear, and anger were significantly positively related to problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

Results: The results found that women showed more severe anxiety and fear than men.
2020-03-12 Ashrafi-rizi et al Information Typology in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Crisis; a Commentary
Arch Acad Emerg Med
IV. Other regarding the number of infected and dead people increased the fear and anxiety among people.
2020-03-15 Li et al Progression of Mental Health Services during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Other Patients, health professionals, and the general public are under insurmountable psychological pressure which may lead to various psychological problems, such as anxiety, fear, depression, and insomnia.

Confirmed and suspected cases of the COVID-19 may experience fear of severe disease consequences and the contagion .

The limited knowledge of the COVID-19 and the overwhelming news may lead to anxiety and fear in the public .
2020-03-15 Deng et al The global battle against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Prevalence Study

Just in about 2.5 months, COVID-19 has been spreading quickly to over 140 countries, infected more than 156,000 people, ranging from newborn to 98 years of age, and killed at least 5,800 patients, mostly in Wuhan, Hubei province of China.
Patients, health professionals and the general public are under insurmountable psychological pressure, which may lead to various mental health problems, such as anxiety, fear, depression, and insomnia.
2020-03-15 Yi et al COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease
Int J Biol Sci
IV. Prevalence Study

On February 11, 2020, a multi-center study on 8,866 patients including 4,021 confirmed COVID-19 patients presented a more updated illustration of the epidemic as follows ( UlBi-HX_rHPXa1qHA2bhdA).
Mandatory contact tracing and quarantine, as a part of the public health responses to the COVID-19 outbreak, can make people more anxious and guilty about the effects of the contagion, quarantine, and stigma on their families and friends .
2020-03-20 Brooks et al The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence
The Lancet
IV. Prevalence Study

A study 28 of horse owners quarantined because of equine influenza identified several characteristics associated with negative psycho logical impacts: younger age (16-24 years), lower levels of formal educational qualifications, female gender, and having one child as opposed to no children (although having three or more children appeared somewhat protective).
The benefits of such a resource have not been studied, but it is likely that reassurance could subsequently decrease feelings such as fear, worry, and anger.

Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma.

Healthcare workers also felt greater stigmatisation than the general public, exhibited more avoidance behaviours after quarantine, reported greater lost income, and were consistently more affected psychologically: they reported substantially more anger, annoyance, fear, frustration, guilt, helplessness, isolation, loneliness, nervousness, sadness, worry, and were less happy.

Only one study 17 compared psychological outcomes during quarantine with later outcomes and found that during quarantine, 7% (126 of 1656) showed anxiety symptoms and 17% showed feelings of anger, whereas 4-6 months after quarantine these symptoms had reduced to 3% (anxiety) and 6% (anger).
2020-03-24 Jiménez-Pavón et al Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
IV. Other The stressor factors suggested included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma.
2020-03-26 Al-Quteimat et al SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help?
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Prevalence Study Finally, stigma can negatively affect both the emotional and mental health of infected individuals.
2020-03-26 Zheng et al Recommendations and guidance for providing pharmaceutical care services during COVID-19 pandemic: A China perspective
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
IV. Other During the interaction and communication with patients, 295 pharmacy staff shall pay attention to their emotional or psychological conditions, and identify 296 patients with excessive anxiety, concern, fear or blind optimism.
2020-03-27 Liu et al Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
IV. Other To reduce fear and other psychological discomfort, children who are quarantined can communicate with their parents via mobile devices at any time.
2020-03-28 Bradley et al A systems approach to preventing and responding to COVID-19
EClinicalMedicine
IV. Other Policies that reduce the number of interpersonal contacts and environmental contamination do not need to motivate people's own protective behaviours, and can therefore avoid the risk of outrage and stigma.
2020-03-29 Kim et al Using psychoneuroimmunity against COVID-19
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
IV. Other Although the psychological impact of COVID-19 remains unclear, infected patients may experience anxiety, depression, guilt, stigma, and anger.
2020-03-30 O’Connell et al Midwives in a pandemic: A call for solidarity and compassion
Women and Birth
IV. Prevalence Study The rise in popularity of social media has been a source of panic, spreading immense anxiety and fear as people voice their experiences, concerns and opinions.
2020-03-31 Xiang et al Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other In any biological disaster, themes of fear, uncertainty, and stigmatisation are common and may act as barriers to appropriate medical and mental health interventions.

8 Health professionals who worked in SARS units and hospitals during the SARS outbreak also reported depression, anxiety, fear, and frustration.

6, 7 Mandatory contact tracing and 14 days quarantine, which form part of the public health responses to the 2019-nCoV pneumonia outbreak, could increase patients' anxiety and guilt about the effects of contagion, quarantine, and stigma on their families and friends.

Patients with confirmed or suspected 2019-nCoV may experience fear of the consequences of infection with a potentially fatal new virus, and those in quarantine might experience boredom, loneliness, and anger.
2020-03-31 Kang et al The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other The severe situation is causing mental health problems such as stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, denial, anger, and fear.
2020-03-31 Asmundson et al Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak
Journal of Anxiety Disorders
IV. Other Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak

Research on the psychological reactions to previous epidemics and pandemics suggests that various psychological vulnerability factors may play a role in coronaphobia, including individual difference variables such as the intolerance of uncertainty, perceived vulnerability to disease, and anxiety (worry) proneness (Taylor, 2019) .

Likewise, lack of information and misinformation, often aided by sensational popular media headlines and foci, have been shown to fuel health-related fears and phobias (Taylor & Asmundson, 2004) .
2020-04-01 Devakumar et al Racism and discrimination in COVID-19 responses
The Lancet
IV. Other Outbreaks create fear, and fear is a key ingredient for racism and xenophobia to thrive.
2020-04-01 Jarynowski et al Perception of emergent epidemic of COVID-2019 / SARS CoV-2 on the Polish Internet
medrxiv
III-3. Time Series Analysis social media), we reconstruct the superficial sociological picture of the discourse around COVID-19 in the following key dimensions as the number and nature of social media events such as information queries and social network analysis.
2020-04-30 Banerjee et al The COVID-19 outbreak: Crucial role the psychiatrists can play
Asian Journal of Psychiatry
IV. Prevalence Study Stigma, xenophobia, mass hysteria and panic are the common offshoots.

Anxiety, frustration, fear of causing infection, insomnia and irritability are often the effects of isolation and quarantine.

Patients can be informed about common stress responses like insomnia, panic attacks, health-anxiety, fear of illness or increase in substance use.
2020-04-30 Yao et al Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other 5 Third, the COVID-19 epidemic has caused a parallel epidemic of fear, anxiety, and depression.
2020-04-30 Zhai et al Mental health care for international Chinese students affected by the COVID-19 outbreak
The Lancet Psychiatry
IV. Other This situation can lead to mental health problems, such as denial, stress, anxiety, and fear.
2020-06-30 Zandifar et al Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic
Asian Journal of Psychiatry
IV. Other According to similar epidemics and pandemics, in such cases, serious concerns such as fear of death can arise among patients, and feelings of loneliness and anger can develop among people who are quarantined (Xiang et al., 2020) .
2020-12-31 Bai et al Chinese experts’ consensus on the Internet of Things-aided diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Clinical eHealth
IV. Prevalence Study Patients frequently experience anxiety and fear; thus, psychological counseling should be adopted.

Patients frequently experience anxiety and fear; hence, psychological counseling should be adopted.
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Levels of Evidence in Epidemiology
LevelRating Criteria
IEvidence obtained from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized, controlled trials
IIEvidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomized, controlled trial
III-1Evidence obtained from well-designed pseudorandomized controlled trials (without proper randomization)
III-2Evidence obtained from comparative studies with concurrent controls and allocation not randomized (cohort studies), case-control studies, or interrupted time series with a control group
III-3Evidence obtained from comparative studies with historical control, 2 or more single-arm studies, or interrupted time series without a parallel control group
IVEvidence obtained from descriptive case series, either before testing or before and after testing